Research Publications

Publications by Genetic Engineering and Society Center affiliated faculty and students. Use the search function to find papers by keyword, author, year, etc..

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2012—Present

Full CitationArticle (Click +/- beside the title to show/hide full citation and additional details)Affiliate(s)YearAbstractSignificanceKeywordsAltmetric
Gakpo, J. O., & Baffour - Awuah, D. (2024). The evolution of media reportage on GMOs in Ghana following approval of first GM crop. GM Crops & Food, 15(1), 16–27. https://doi.org/10.1080/21645698.2024.2365481. PDFThe evolution of media reportage on GMOs in Ghana following approval of first GM cropJoseph Opoku Gakpo2024Ghana’s parliament in 2011 passed the Biosafety Act to allow for the application of genetically modified organism (GMO) technology in the country’s agriculture. In a vibrant democracy, there have been extensive media discussions on whether GM crops will benefit or harm citizens. In June 2022, the state GMO regulator, the National Biosafety Authority (NBA), approved the country’s first GM crop (Bt cowpea) for environmental release, declaring the crop does not present an altered environmental risk or a food/feed safety concern. This study identified 3 of the country’s most vibrant digital news outlets and did a content analysis of all GMO stories reported 18 months pre- and post-approval to assess whether the approval changed the focus of GMO issues the media reports on. 91 articles were identified. The results show media reports on the likely impact of GMOs on the country’s food security shot up after the approval. However, media reports on the possible health, sociocultural, and environmental impact of GMOs declined. We observe the media and the public appear interested in deliberations on how the technology could address or worsen food insecurity and urge agricultural biotechnology actors in Ghana to focus on that in their sensitization activities.The media's influence in shaping consumer decisions and government policies on food is far-reaching. By disseminating information, framing issues, and advocating for specific causes, the media plays a central role in influencing the food choices consumers make. The media remains a primary communication channel providing information to the public on GMOs and CRISPR gene editing tools as consumers turn to it for clarity on the complex scientific details of the technology. It is thus necessary that agricultural biotechnology actos pay attention to what the media reports about the technology. This study assessed the evolution of media reportage on GMOs in Ghana over a three-year period. Food security, GM crops, GMOs, journalists, media coverage, science communicationhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/21645698.2024.2365481?src=exp-la10.1080/21645698.2024.2365481
Lowry, G.V., Giraldo, J.P., Steinmetz, N.F.,... Grieger, K., et al. Towards realizing nano-enabled precision delivery in plants. Nat. Nanotechnol. (2024). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41565-024-01667-5. PDF. Towards realizing nano-enabled precision delivery in plantsKhara Grieger2024Nanocarriers (NCs) that can precisely deliver active agents, nutrients and genetic materials into plants will make crop agriculture more resilient to climate change and sustainable. As a research field, nano-agriculture is still developing, with significant scientific and societal barriers to overcome. In this Review, we argue that lessons can be learned from mammalian nanomedicine. In particular, it may be possible to enhance efficiency and efficacy by improving our understanding of how NC properties affect their interactions with plant surfaces and biomolecules, and their ability to carry and deliver cargo to specific locations. New tools are required to rapidly assess NC–plant interactions and to explore and verify the range of viable targeting approaches in plants. Elucidating these interactions can lead to the creation of computer-generated in silico models (digital twins) to predict the impact of different NC and plant properties, biological responses, and environmental conditions on the efficiency and efficacy of nanotechnology approaches. Finally, we highlight the need for nano-agriculture researchers and social scientists to converge in order to develop sustainable, safe and socially acceptable NCs.This Review discussed the development of digital plants from the scale of molecules to organisms. A digital plant model at this level of organization could potentially be incorporated into already existing crop or ecosystem models205 to simulate NC and environmental interactions at a larger scale. Overcoming these scientific challenges to develop globally sustainable nano-enabled precision delivery approaches will require convergence across both scientific and societal boundaries.Nanotechnology, Nano-carriers, Sustainabilityhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1038/s41565-024-01667-510.1038/s41565-024-01667-5
Grieger, K. , Wiener, J., Kuzma, J. Improving risk governance strategies via learning: a comparative analysis of solar radiation modification and gene drives. Environment Systems and Decisions. (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-024-09979-6. PDF. Graphic.Improving risk governance strategies via learning: a comparative analysis of solar radiation modification and gene drivesKhara Grieger, Jennifer Kuzma2024Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) and gene drive organisms (GDOs) have been proposed as technological responses to complex entrenched environmental challenges. They also share several characteristics of emerging risks, including extensive uncertainties, systemic interdependencies, and risk profiles intertwined with societal contexts. This Perspective conducts a comparative analysis of the two technologies, and identifies ways in which their research and policy communities may learn from each other to inform future risk governance strategies. We find that SAI and GDOs share common features of aiming to improve or restore a public good, are characterized by numerous potential ecological, societal, and ethical risks associated with deep uncertainty, and are challenged by how best to coordinate behavior of different actors. Meanwhile, SAI and GDOs differ in their temporal and spatial mode of deployment, spread, degree and type of reversibility, and potential for environmental monitoring. Based on this analysis, we find the field of SAI may learn from GDOs by enhancing its international collaborations for governance and oversight, while the field of GDOs may learn from SAI by investing in research focused on economics and decision-modeling. Additionally, given the relatively early development stages of SAI and GDOs, there may be ample opportunities to learn from risk governance efforts of other emerging technologies, including the need for improved monitoring and incorporating aspects of responsible innovation in research and any deployment.By comparing and contrasting the technical and risk governance features of SAI and GDOs, this Perspective identifies ways in which research and policy communities may learn from each other to inform future risk governance strategies. Key findings include similarities and differences between the two emerging technologies, as well as opportunities for learning across these two domains and from other emerging technologies. We further suggest challenges and opportunities for SAI and GDOs on issues including international cooperative governance, economics and decision research, reversibility, adaptive learning, and monitoring. Overall, these suggestions may be useful for researchers, scholars, and decision-makers involved in the risk governance of SAI, GDOs, and other emerging technologies that are being investigated or considered as technological responses to complex environmental challenges.Gene drives, Risk governance, Stratospheric aerosol injectionhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10669-024-09979-610.1007/s10669-024-09979-6
Streicker D.G.,... Kuzma J., et al. (2024) Developing transmissible vaccines for animal infections. Science 384, 275-277. https://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adn3231. PDF (requires Unity ID login). GraphicDeveloping transmissible vaccines for animal infectionsJennifer Kuzma2024Intrinsically safe designs and a staged transparent development process will be essential

Many emerging and reemerging pathogens originate from wildlife, but nearly all wild species are unreachable using conventional vaccination, which requires capture of and vaccine administration to individual animals. By enabling immunization at scales sufficient to interrupt pathogen transmission, transmissible vaccines (TVs) that spread themselves through wildlife populations by infectious processes could potentially transform the management of otherwise intractable challenges to public health, wildlife conservation, and animal welfare. However, generating TVs likely requires modifying viruses that would be intended to spread in nature, which raises concerns ranging from technical feasibility, to safety and security risks, to regulatory uncertainties (1, 2). We propose a series of commitments and strategies for vaccine development—beginning with a priori decisions on vaccine design and continuing through to stakeholder codevelopment [see supplementary materials (SM)]—that we believe increase the likelihood that the potential risks of vaccine transmission are outweighed by benefits to conservation, animal welfare, and zoonosis prevention.

This article discusses the potential of transmissible vaccines (TVs) to combat wildlife-origin pathogens, offering a scalable solution to public health, wildlife conservation, and animal welfare challenges. The authors emphasize the importance of safety, transparency, and stakeholder engagement in developing TVs, highlighting their promise to mitigate zoonotic risks. The strategies proposed aim to navigate technical, regulatory, and ethical complexities, advocating for responsible decision-making based on evidence.Transmissible vaccines (TVs), Animal infections, Societal and ethical implications (SEI), Public health, Wildlife conservation, Vaccine development, Risk assessment, Regulation, Governancehttps://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.adn323110.1126/science.adn3231
Volpe, J. P., Higgs, E. S., Jeschke, J. M., Barnhill, K., et al. (2024) Bionovelty and ecological restoration. Restoration Ecology, e14152. https://doi.org/10.1111/rec.14152. PDF. GraphicBionovelty and ecological restorationKatie Barnhill2024Anthropogenic activity has irreparably altered the ecological fabric of Earth. The emergence of ecological novelty from diverse drivers of change is an increasingly challenging dimension of ecosystem restoration. At the same time, the restorationist's tool kit continues to grow, including a variety of powerful and increasingly prevalent technologies. Thus, ecosystem restoration finds itself at the center of intersecting challenges. How should we respond to increasingly common emergence of environmental system states with little or no historical precedent, whilst considering the appropriate deployment of potentially consequential and largely untested interventions that may give rise to organisms, system states, and/or processes that are likewise without historical precedent? We use the term bionovelty to encapsulate these intersecting themes and examine the implications of bionovelty for ecological restoration.Existing conservation/restoration efforts may not be particularly well-suited to contemporary wicked problems characteristic of the Anthropocene. This article situates emerging environmental biotechnologies and other novel interventions in the context of restoration ecology literatures. Until recently, emerging technologies have not been a common issue discussed in this literature.Ecological Restoration, Emerging Biotechnologieshttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/rec.1415210.1111/rec.14152
Mugwanya, N., Jayaratne, K. S. U., Bloom, J. D., Donaldson, J. L., & Delborne, J. (2024). Competencies and training needs of extension agents for educating farmers on genetically engineered crops in Uganda. Advancements in Agricultural Development, 5(1), Article 1. https://doi.org/10.37433/aad.v5i1.395. PDF.Competencies and training needs of extension agents for educating farmers on genetically engineered crops in UgandaNassib Mugwanya, Jason Delborne2024The purpose of this study was to determine the training needs of extension agents in Uganda to lead successful education programs on genetically engineered (GE) crops. This was a descriptive survey research study conducted online with public agricultural extension agents in the eastern agro-ecological zone of Uganda. This study used Borich’s method to identify training needs. A survey instrument was designed to determine extension agents’ perceived importance and proficiency of 60 competencies organized under the eight Public Issues Education (PIE) framework competency constructs. The survey received 58 usable responses comprising an 83% response rate. All eight PIE competency constructs were perceived by the extension agents to be important. This study identified additional four competencies important for PIE in addition to the eight competencies in the model. Agents’ greatest training needs were creating partnerships and designing GE education programs. The lowest training needs were creating an environment of professionalism and managing conflicts. The findings indicate the importance of training extension agents on how to engage with farmers in new ways to educate them on GE technology. This study provides implications for determining the training needs of extension agents in PIE such as educating farmers on GE technology.This study identifies critical training needs for Ugandan agricultural extension agents to effectively educate farmers about genetically engineered (GE) crops, emphasizing the importance of creating partnerships and designing education programs. Using the Public Issues Education (PIE) framework, it highlights the need to shift from traditional top-down methods to participatory approaches to address the controversies surrounding GE technology.Public issues education, Controversial issues, Extension education, In-service training, Technology transferhttps://agdevresearch.org/index.php/aad/article/view/39510.37433/aad.v5i1.395
Pezzini D., Taylor K.L., Reisig D.D., and Fritz M.L. (2024). Cross-pollination in seed-blended refuge and selection for Vip3A resistance in a lepidopteran pest as detected by genomic monitoring. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 121(13), https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2319838121. PDF. GraphicCross-pollination in seed-blended refuge and selection for Vip3A resistance in a lepidopteran pest as detected by genomic monitoringDaniela Pezzini, Dominic Reisig2024The evolution of pest resistance to management tools reduces productivity and results in economic losses in agricultural systems. To slow its emergence and spread, monitoring and prevention practices are implemented in resistance management programs. Recent work suggests that genomic approaches can identify signs of emerging resistance to aid in resistance management. Here, we empirically examined the sensitivity of genomic monitoring for resistance management in transgenic Bt crops, a globally important agricultural innovation. Whole genome resequencing of wild North American Helicoverpa zea collected from non-expressing refuge and plants expressing Cry1Ab confirmed that resistance-associated signatures of selection were detectable after a single generation of exposure. Upon demonstrating its sensitivity, we applied genomic monitoring to wild H. zea that survived Vip3A exposure resulting from cross-pollination of refuge plants in seed-blended plots. Refuge seed interplanted with transgenic seed exposed H. zea to sublethal doses of Vip3A protein in corn ears and was associated with allele frequency divergence across the genome. Some of the greatest allele frequency divergence occurred in genomic regions adjacent to a previously described candidate gene for Vip3A resistance. Our work highlights the power of genomic monitoring to sensitively detect heritable changes associated with field exposure to Bt toxins and suggests that seed-blended refuge will likely hasten the evolution of resistance to Vip3A in lepidopteran pests.Pesticide resistance evolution is common in agricultural systems and results in reduced productivity and economic losses. Delaying the emergence of resistance and sensitively detecting it when it arises provides opportunities to prevent these losses and improve the durability of pest management innovations. Genomic approaches have the power to detect molecular signals of emerging resistance prior to crop failure, but there is a need to determine their sensitivity and develop best practices for their use in resistance management. Our work demonstrated that genomic monitoring could detect resistance-associated allele frequency divergence in a pest population after a single generation of exposure, and we detected signals of emerging resistance to Vip3A toxin.Pesticide Resistance, Corn Earworm, Genomic Monitoring, Agriculture, Helicoverpa zea, Bacillus thuringiensis, Polygenic Adaptationhttps://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.231983812110.1073/pnas.2319838121
Andow, D. A., & Paula, D. P. (2024). Estimating relative per capita predation rates from molecular gut content analysis. Biological Control, 105499. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocontrol.2024.105499. PDFEstimating relative per capita predation rates from molecular gut content analysisDavid Andow2024The problem of estimating predation rates from molecular gut content data has been challenging. Previous work showed how per capita predation rates could be estimated from quantitative molecular gut content data using the average prey quantity in the predator, the decay rate of the prey in the predator and a conversion constant to convert measured prey quantity into prey numbers or biomass. Based on this previous work, we developed and illustrated a method to estimate relative per capita predation rates for a single prey species consumed by one predator species. This method does not require estimation of either the decay rate of the prey in the predator or the conversion constant. We describe how gut content data from qPCR, quantitative ELISA, metabarcoding and unassembled shotgun reads (Lazaro) can be used to estimate relative per capita predation rates. The method was used to estimate the relative per capita predation rate in a laboratory feeding trial to evaluate the precision and accuracy of the method using Lazaro data. Ten independent estimates were statistically similar, but precision was related to the number of observed prey reads. We estimated the relative per capita predation rate by the ant Pheidole flavens on another ant Pheidole tristis in a field experiment and by the ladybeetle Hippodamia convergens on the aphid Lipaphis pseudobrassicae on organic production farms. We found that higher P. flavens activity-density was associated with lower relative per capita predation rates, therefore indicating lower predation rates on P. tristis. The absence of variation among farms in relative per capita predation by H. convergens suggested that the farms were biological replicates. Using relative per capita predation rates can provide a rapid way to assess how a predator–prey interaction changes over space and time and may help identify factors that limit or enhance biological control of pests.Estimating predation rates is important for evaluating the effects of predators on their prey. We develop a broadly applicable method to estimate relative predation rates using quantitative molecular gut content data. This is illustrated with two examples to show how relative predation rates can be used.Food webs, Generalist predators, Molecular diet analysis, Natural enemies, Predation ratehttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S104996442400064110.1016/j.biocontrol.2024.105499
Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST). 2024. Applications, Benefits, and Challenges of Genome Edited Crops. Issue Paper 74. CAST, Ames, Iowa. Retrieved from https://www.cast-science.org/publication/applications-benefits-and-challenges-of-genome-edited-crops/. PDF. GraphicApplications, Benefits, and Challenges of Genome Edited CropsZack Brown2024The tools of genome editing were described more than a decade ago as promising ways to accelerate crop improvement in addition to applications for human and animal health. Now, a decade later, we are seeing applications of genome editing across a range of different crops and trait combinations that will bring benefits to producers and consumers. Countries around the world are actively engaged in updating regulatory frameworks to govern this new technology adequately. In this paper, we describe recent advances in genome editing tools, review select applications underway, consider the benefits of the technology, and offer a perspective on significant challenges to the success of the use of genome editing. Given an enabling policy environment, genome editing will be an important tool in creating a competitive bioeconomy while addressing major challenges to agriculture and consumers. We offer five recommendations to ensure genome editing in agriculture benefits society.Genome editing tools have been around for over a decade, but they are now being used to accelerate crop improvement and address challenges in agriculture. The use of genome editing in agriculture has the potential to revolutionize the industry, but it also brings with it unique benefits and challenges. This paper provides an overview of the current status and future prospects of genome editing in agriculture. It reviews recent advances in genome editing tools, discusses select applications in various crops, and considers the benefits and challenges of the technology. The paper also offers recommendations to ensure that genome editing in agriculture benefits society. It highlights the potential of genome editing as an important tool in creating a competitive bioeconomy, addressing major challenges in agriculture, and benefiting consumers.Genome Editing, Agriculture, Biotechnology, Regulation, Governance, Incentiveshttps://www.cast-science.org/publication/applications-benefits-and-challenges-of-genome-edited-crops/0
Hollingsworth, B. D., Cho, C., Vella, M., Roh, H., Sass, J., Lloyd, A. L., Brown, Z. S. (2024) Economic optimization of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti release to prevent dengue. Pest Management Science. https://doi.org/10.1002/ps.8086. PDF. GraphicEconomic optimization of Wolbachia-infected Aedes aegypti release to prevent dengueBrandon D. Hollingsworth, Michael Vella, Alun L. Lloyd, Zack Brown2024

BACKGROUND: Dengue virus, primarily transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito, is a major public health concern affecting ≈3.83 billion people worldwide. Recent releases of Wolbachia-transinfected Ae. aegypti in several cities worldwide have shown that it can reduce dengue transmission. However, these releases are costly, and, to date, no framework has been proposed for determining economically optimal release strategies that account for both costs associated with disease risk and releases.

RESULTS: We present a flexible stochastic dynamic programming framework for determining optimal release schedules for Wolbachia-transinfected mosquitoes that balances the cost of dengue infection with the costs of rearing and releasing transinfected mosquitoes. Using an ordinary differential equation model of Wolbachia and dengue in a hypothetical city loosely describing areas at risk of new dengue epidemics, we determined that an all-or-nothing release strategy that quickly brings Wolbachia to fixation is often the optimal solution. Based on this, we examined the optimal facility size, finding that it was inelastic with respect to the mosquito population size, with a 100% increase in population size resulting in a 50–67% increase in optimal facility size. Furthermore, we found that these results are robust to mosquito life-history parameters and are mostly determined by the mosquito population size and the fitness costs associated with Wolbachia.

CONCLUSIONS: These results reinforce that Wolbachia-transinfected mosquitoes can reduce the cost of dengue epidemics. Furthermore, they emphasize the importance of determining the size of the target population and fitness costs associated with Wolbachia before releases occur. © 2024 The Authors. Pest Management Science published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Society of Chemical Industry.dengue transmission. However, these releases are costly, and, to date, no framework has been proposed for determining economically optimal release strategies that account for both costs associated with disease risk and releases.

Wolbachia is bacteria that has been discovered to infect mosquitoes that transmit dengue virus and to halt those mosquitoes from transmitting the virus to humans. Dengue virus causes dengue hemorrhagic fever, which is a public health threat to over 3 billion people globally, and currently there are not many effective tools for prevention and treatment. Because Wolbachia-infected mosquitoes can block dengue, largescale rearing and release of these mosquitoes has become a promising new approach that is now being deployed around the globe. However, this approach involves unique economic considerations and questions for program design, as compared to other public health interventions. In particular, What is the economically optimal pattern of releases? And how large should rearing facilities be built? This paper addresses these questions, and shows how to improve the economic performance of these interventions in order to maximize the impact of available budgets.Wolbachia, Aedes aegypti, Optimal controlhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ps.8086?casa_token=BKhF3Y3KeP4AAAAA%3A8JESh-0a_-qb0n1Kq5eiGfBXE34xXM__CAeAb7r9qpx4bkEjfWdhkhi9k4QUsD56F4oMl01h7MJCuA10.1002/ps.8086
Gillespie, Christopher J. “What Do Bitter Greens Mean to the Public?” Issues in Science and Technology 40, no. 2 (Winter 2024): 73–75. https://doi.org/10.58875/EYEX8550. PDF. GraphicWhat Do Bitter Greens Mean to the Public?Christopher J. Gillespie2024A growing bioeconomy must prioritize new forms of public engagement and transparency.This article emphasizes the urgent need for inclusive public engagement in biotechnology to foster trust and ensure sustainable development. It proposes a framework centered on creating diverse stakeholder forums, translating public feedback into regulatory recommendations, and integrating social data into policies. This approach aims to bridge the gap between experts and public sentiments, promoting transparency and innovation crucial for a trusted bioeconomy.Bioeconomy, Engagement, Transpearencyhttps://issues.org/bioeconomy-public-engagement-gillespie/0
Kendig C, Selfa T, Thompson P, ..., Kuzma J, et al. (2024). The need for more inclusive deliberation on ethics and governance in food biotechnology. Journal of Responsible Innovation. https://doi.org/10.1080/23299460.2024.2304383. PDF. Graphic The need for more inclusive deliberation on ethics and governance in food biotechnologyJennifer Kuzma2024An inclusive and socially legitimate governance structure is absent to address concerns over new agricultural biotechnologies. Establishing an agricultural bioethics commission devoted to inclusive deliberation on ethics and governance in agricultural and food biotechnology is urgent. Highlighting the social and ethical dimensions of current agricultural bioengineering disputes in the food system, we discuss how a nationally recognized policy forum could improve decision-making and increase public understanding of the issues. We clarify ways the concepts that are used to categorize food and frame governance of food affect consumer choices, and how dissemination of information and the mode of dissemination can contribute to social inequities. We cite the record of medically-oriented bioethic commissions and the history of international bioethic commissions in support of our argument, and end by discussing what such a commission dedicated to agriculture and food issues could reasonably be expected to achieve.The article underscores the pressing need for an inclusive governance structure to address ethical concerns arising from advancements in agricultural and food biotechnology. It highlights the absence of a dedicated agricultural bioethics commission comparable to those in biomedicine, emphasizing the importance of such a forum for informed decision-making and public understanding. Drawing on the experiences of medical bioethics commissions, the article advocates for a similar approach to foster open dialogue and consensus-building around the social and ethical dimensions of agricultural biotechnology. Additionally, it critiques current regulatory frameworks, such as the NBFDL and SECURE rule, and calls for greater transparency and accountability in labeling and oversight of biotechnological products.Bioethics commissions, Agricultural governance, Food bioengineering disputes, Agricultural bioethics, Agricultural biotechnology regulation, Agricultural epistemologieshttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2024.230438310.1080/23299460.2024.2304383
Cho, C., Brown, Z., Gross, K., & Tregeagle, D. Developing practical measures of the price of pesticide resistance: A flexible computational framework with global sensitivity analysis. (2024) JAAEA. https://doi.org/10.1002/jaa2.107. PDF. GraphicDeveloping practical measures of the price of pesticide resistance: A flexible computational framework with global sensitivity analysisZack Brown, Kevin Gross2024Pesticide resistance poses an increasing challenge for agricultural sustainability. Pesticide susceptibility is a depletable biological resource, but resistance management rarely quantifies marginal, forward-looking economic costs to users of depletion. To facilitate the development of such costs, we use a generic stochastic bioeconomic model of resistance evolution in a crop pest population, stochastic dynamic programming, and global sensitivity analysis to analyze the “marginal user costs” of resistance. The most impactful parameters are population density dependence and pesticide prices. The least impactful is the fitness cost of resistance, which is noteworthy because of prior emphasis on this parameter in the resistance management literature.Pesticide resistance poses major challenges for maintaining agricultural production and the costs of food faced by consumers, as well as for public health in the control of insect-vectored diseases. If left unmanaged, pesticide resistance increases the costs of controlling pests and disease vectors. But actual numbers for these costs have rarely been calculated, making it difficult for pesticide users and policymakers to weigh future resistance problems in their economic decisions about pesticide use. The research we conducted aimed to establish a more practical and scientifically credible way to calculate these costs, and to understand how different economic and biological factors affect the calculation. We then applied this method to a historically important pest of corn in the US (the European corn borer), which has been effectively eliminated using transgenic pesticidal corn: At low levels of resistance, where effective management action can still effectively delay resistance, an example calculation estimates that corn farmers should include a 60% markup to the transgenic trait when making their corn seed choices, in order to account for the expected costs of future resistance.Economics, Pesticide Resistance, Transgenic Crops, Bioeconomicshttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/jaa2.10710.1002/jaa2.107
Hardwick, A., Cummings, C., Graves, J. and Kuzma, J. Can societal and ethical implications of precision microbiome engineering be applied to the built environment? A systematic review of the literature. Environ Syst Decis (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-024-09965-y. SharedIt Open-Access link https://rdcu.be/dzxqa. PDF. GraphicCan societal and ethical implications of precision microbiome engineering be applied to the built environment? A systematic review of the literatureAndrew Hardwick, Christopher Cummings, Jennifer Kuzma, Joseph L. Graves Jr.2024The goal of engineering the microbiome of the built environment is to create places and spaces that are better for human health. Like other emerging technologies, engineering the microbiome of the built environment may bring considerable benefits but there has been a lack of exploration on its societal implication and how to engineer in an ethical way. To date, this topic area has also not been pulled together into a singular study for any systematic review or analysis. This study fills this gap by providing the first a systematic review of societal and ethical implications of engineering microbiomes and the application of this knowledge to engineering the microbiome of the built environment. To organize and guide our analysis, we invoked four major ethical principles (individual good/non-maleficence, collective good/beneficence, autonomy, and justice) as a framework for characterizing and categorizing 15 distinct themes that emerged from the literature. We argue that these different themes can be used to explain and predict the social and ethical implications of engineering the microbiome of the built environment that if addressed adequately can help to improve public health as this field further develops at global scales.This article, written by the Societal and Ethical Implications (SEI) team of the NSF Precision Microbiome Engineering (PreMiEr) Engineering Research Center, is the first systematic review of the SEI literature on the microbiome. As research about the microbiome of the built environment (MoBE) grows, it will be needed to adapt the lessons taken from studying microbiomes in general and apply them to the built environment. These lessons will enable more ethical research of the built environment and the development of applications that better consider different societal views about MoBE engineering.Microbiome, Built environment, Societal and ethical implications, Systematic review, PreMiErhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10669-024-09965-y10.1007/s10669-024-09965-y
Hornstein, E.D., Charles, M., Franklin, M. et al. IPD3, a master regulator of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, affects genes for immunity and metabolism of non-host Arabidopsis when restored long after its evolutionary loss. Plant Mol Biol 114, 21 (2024). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11103-024-01422-3. PDFIPD3, a master regulator of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis, affects genes for immunity and metabolism of non-host Arabidopsis when restored long after its evolutionary loss. Eli Hornstein, Heike Sederoff2024Arbuscular mycorrhizal symbiosis (AM) is a beneficial trait originating with the first land plants, which has subsequently been lost by species scattered throughout the radiation of plant diversity to the present day, including the model Arabidopsis thaliana. To explore if elements of this apparently beneficial trait are still present and could be reactivated we generated Arabidopsis plants expressing a constitutively active form of Interacting Protein of DMI3, a key transcription factor that enables AM within the Common Symbiosis Pathway, which was lost from Arabidopsis along with the AM host trait. We characterize the transcriptomic effect of expressing IPD3 in Arabidopsis with and without exposure to the AM fungus (AMF) Rhizophagus irregularis, and compare these results to the AM model Lotus japonicus and its ipd3 knockout mutant cyclops-4. Despite its long history as a non-AM species, restoring IPD3 in the form of its constitutively active DNA-binding domain to Arabidopsis altered expression of specific gene networks. Surprisingly, the effect of expressing IPD3 in Arabidopsis and knocking it out in Lotus was strongest in plants not exposed to AMF, which is revealed to be due to changes in IPD3 genotype causing a transcriptional state, which partially mimics AMF exposure in non-inoculated plants. Our results indicate that molecular connections to symbiosis machinery remain in place in this nonAM species, with implications for both basic science and the prospect of engineering this trait for agriculture.Arabidopsis lost its ability to host mycorrhizal symbiosis over 65 million years ago. Restoring expression of an important mycorrhizae-related gene from a legume into Arabidopsis regulated genes for defense and stress.Mycorrhizae, Symbiosis, Non-mycorrhizal, Genetic engineering, Systems biology, Plant transcriptomicshttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11103-024-01422-310.1007/s11103-024-01422-3
Budnick, A., Franklin, M.J., Utley, D., Edwards, B., Charles, M., Hornstein, E.D., Sederoff, H. (2024) Long- and short-read sequencing methods discover distinct circular RNA pools in Lotus japonicus. The Plant Genome. e20429. doi: 10.1002/tpg2.20429. PDF. GraphicLong- and short-read sequencing methods discover distinct circular RNA pools in Lotus japonicusAsa Budnick, Delecia Utley, Eli Hornstein, Heike Sederoff2024Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are covalently closed single-stranded RNAs, generated through a back-splicing process that links a downstream 5′ site to an upstream 3′ end. The only distinction in the sequence between circRNA and their linear cognate RNA is the back splice junction. Their low abundance and sequence similarity with their linear origin RNA have made the discovery and identification of circRNA challenging. We have identified almost 6000 novel circRNAs from Lotus japonicus leaf tissue using different enrichment, amplification, and sequencing methods as well as alternative bioinformatics pipelines. The different methodologies identified different pools of circRNA with little overlap. We validated circRNA identified by the different methods using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and characterized sequence variations using nanopore sequencing. We compared validated circRNA identified in L. japonicus to other plant species and showed conservation of high-confidence circRNA-expressing genes. This is the first identification of L. japonicus circRNA and provides a resource for further characterization of their function in gene regulation. CircRNAs identified in this study originated from genes involved in all biological functions of eukaryotic cells. The comparison of methodologies and technologies to sequence, identify, analyze, and validate circRNA from plant tissues will enable further research to characterize the function and biogenesis of circRNA in L. japonicus.This is the first identification of circular RNAs in a model plant that is commonly used for researching the genetics of symbiosis. This makes it an early step in understanding how circular RNAs may be involved in plant microbe symbiosis. We used long read and short read sequencing strategies and obtained different circRNA populations from each, this is the first time that this was done in plants and mirrors results from animals. This indicates that circular RNA populations may be more diverse than either sequencing technique is able to capture on it's own.Lotus japonicus, Genomics, RNA Sequencing, Circular RNA, Long Read Sequencinghttps://acsess.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/tpg2.2042910.1002/tpg2.20429
George, D. R., Danciu, M., Davenport, P. W., Lakin, M. R., Chappell, J., & Frow, E. K. (2024). A bumpy road ahead for genetic biocontainment. Nature Communications, 15(1), 1-5. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-44531-1. PDF. GraphicA bumpy road ahead for genetic biocontainmentDalton George2024Commentary: While the research community continues to develop novel proposals for intrinsic biocontainment of genetically engineered organisms, translation to real-world deployment faces several challenges.This article, co-authored by AgBioFEWS alum Dalton George, highlights the challenges facing the real-world deployment of genetically engineered organisms with intrinsic biocontainment mechanisms. Despite the growing interest in using bioengineered organisms for applications such as bioremediation and biosensing, the translation of intrinsic biocontainment from laboratory settings to open environments is hindered by limited testing data, regulatory uncertainty, and the absence of standardized metrics for evaluating biocontainment success. The article discusses challenges in laboratory research, testing, and regulatory approval, emphasizing the need for a more comprehensive approach that considers ecological, legal, economic, and social dimensions. The authors propose recommendations, including increased funding for biocontainment research, mandatory training for biosafety committees, and active engagement with stakeholders to build trust and address broader societal concerns.Biotechnology, Policy, Synthetic biology, Biosafety, Biocontainmenthttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-023-44531-110.1038/s41467-023-44531-1
Gillespie, C.J. (2024) Building Equity in the NC Food System Through Community Practice. Center for Environmental Farming Systems, NC State University. Retrieved from https://cefs.ncsu.edu/resources/core-policy-memorandum/?portfolioCats=110. PDFBuilding Equity in the NC Food System Through Community PracticeChristopher J. Gillespie2024The document addresses the challenges and opportunities within the North Carolina (NC) food system, emphasizing the need for strategic partnerships and community-driven initiatives.Racial equity, Food systemhttps://drive.google.com/file/d/1coO7qP4zVgqgrQHf4j3lviepYe25BTgZ/view0
Furgurson, J.M. and Delborne, J.A. (2024). Unsettled Ethical Issues in Gene Drive Research. GeneConvene Global Collaborative, McMaster University Institute on Ethics and Policy for Innovation (IEPI). Retrieved from https://fnih.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/12/GDRF-Ethics-Panel.pdf. GraphicUnsettled Ethical Issues in Gene Drive ResearchJill Furgurson, Jason Delborne2024McMaster University Institute on Ethics and Policy for Innovation and GeneConvene Global Collaborative co-hosted a series of virtual panel discussions focused on unsettled ethical issues important to gene drive research. The series brought together stakeholders from research, government, private sector, and not-for-profit organizations, as well as other parties with an interest in safe and ethical conduct of gene drive research for applications in public health, conservation, and agriculture. Over the course of four sessions, the panelists considered a variety of topics related to ethical issues and emerging technologies, including the moral differences of the natural and synthetic; considerations of justice and equity; the nature and scope of obligations of various actors in the gene drive space; and the role of principles in the ethical governance of emerging technologies such as gene drive. These summaries identify key themes and provide overviews of each panel discussion.According to the Gene Drive Research Forum, "The Gene Drive Research Forum provides a unique environment for interaction among a broad spectrum of stakeholders for engineered gene drive technologies to respectfully, yet openly, consider, discuss, and debate important challenging, controversial, or overlooked gene drive technology-related issues that will help build a sense of community among stakeholders and result in actionable considerations." The authors provide accessible summaries of four such virtual panels exploring a diversity of ethical issues related to the development, deployment, and governance of gene drive technologies.Gene Drive, Ethics, Responsible Innovationhttps://fnih.org/wp-content/uploads/2023/12/GDRF-Ethics-Panel.pdf0
Gakpo, J. O., Hardwick, A., Ahmad, J., Choi, J., Matus, S. C., Mugisa, J. D., Ethridge, S., Utley, D., & Zarate, S. (2024). The need for communication between researchers and policymakers for the deployment of bioengineered carbon capture and sequestration crops. Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems, 8, 1329123. doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2024.1329123. PDF. GraphicThe need for communication between researchers and policymakers for the deployment of bioengineered carbon capture and sequestration cropsJoseph Opoku Gakpo, Andrew Hardwick, Jabeen Ahmad, Jaimie Choi, Salvador Cruz Matus, Jill Dana Mugisa, Sandra Ethridge, Delecia Utley, Sebastian Zarate2024Bioengineered/genome-edited carbon capture and sequestration (BE/GEd-CCS) crops are being developed to mitigate climate change. This paper explores how technology, regulation, funding, and social implications, could shape the development and deployment of these crops. We conclude that some of the technological efforts to create BE/GEd-CCS crops may work. Still, stakeholders must agree on generally accepted methods of measuring how much carbon is captured in the soil and its value. The regulatory space for BE/GEd-CCS crops remains fluid until the first crops are reviewed. BE/GEd-CCS crops have received considerable initial funding and may benefit financially more from other federal programs and voluntary carbon markets. BE/GEd-CCS crops may continue perpetuating social equity concerns about agricultural biotechnology due to a lack of oversight. We argue that stakeholders need to pursue a multidisciplinary view of BE/GEd-CCS crops that draw in varying perspectives for effective development and deployment. Communication is needed between researchers and policymakers involved in either developing BE/GEd-CCS crops or developing voluntary carbon markets. We argue for the start of a conversation both across disciplines and between researchers and policymakers about the development and deployment of BE/GEd-CCS crops.AgBioFEWS Cohort 2 interdisciplinary group project publicationGenetic Engineering, Genome Editing, Bioengineered Crops, Climate Change, Carbon Capture Sequestration, AgBioFEWShttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fsufs.2024.1329123/full10.3389/fsufs.2024.1329123
Grieger, K. & May, K. (2024). Guide to Understanding and Addressing PFAS in our Communities. NC State Extension. Retrieved from https://content.ces.ncsu.edu/Guide-to-Understanding-and-Addressing-PFAS-in-our-communities. PDFGuide to Understanding and Addressing PFAS in our CommunitiesKhara Grieger2024This publication addresses the following questions:
  • What are per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS)?
  • How could I be exposed?
  • What are the possible health effects from exposures?
  • Can I have my water or soil tested for PFAS?
  • Is it safe to eat from a home garden affected by PFAS?
  • Is it safe for my livestock to graze on land affected by PFAS?
  • How can we reduce our exposure?
  • How are regulatory agencies addressing PFAS?
While this does not relate to genetic engineering, PFAS continues to be a major risk to the state of North Carolina and our inhabitants. Stakeholders, citizens, and the public are increasingly requesting more information about PFAS and ways to reduce potential risks. This is the first NC State Extension publication (peer-reviewed) published on PFAS.PFAS, Water, Agriculture, Riskhttps://content.ces.ncsu.edu/Guide-to-Understanding-and-Addressing-PFAS-in-our-communities0
Naime, J., Angelsen, A., Rodriguez-Ward, D., & Sills, E. O. (2024). Participation, anticipation effects and impact perceptions of two collective incentive-based conservation interventions in Ucayali, Peru. Ecological Economics, 217, 108052. 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2023.108052. PDFParticipation, anticipation effects and impact perceptions of two collective incentive-based conservation interventions in Ucayali, PeruDawn Rodriguez-Ward2023This study contributes to the relatively scarce literature evaluating household-level outcomes of collective agreements. We examine participation in and anticipation effects of two collective, incentive-based initiatives in Ucayali, Peru. The first initiative is a local REDD+ project, the second is Peru's National Forest Conservation Program (NFCP). Both initiatives were evaluated at an early stage of implementation, thus any effects are characterized as anticipation effects. We first examine the determinants of participation in the initiatives and find that household participation is negatively associated with agricultural income and positively associated with market access and previous experiences with external initiatives. Next, we use quasi-experimental methods and self-reflexive evaluations to examine impacts on land use and livelihoods. The results show no evidence of anticipation effects on income or land use. Self-reflexive evaluations indicate, however, that a total of 82% of the NFCP participating households perceive a positive effect on wellbeing, while only 39% of participants in REDD+ perceive a positive effect. The differences in perceptions of the two initiatives is attributed to design and implementation factors, including delayed payments, lack of transparency, and limited local input. The study demonstrates the value of self-reflexive evaluations for identifying intangible effects on wellbeing of conservation initiatives.REDD+, land use and livelihood impacts, quasi-experimental methodshttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecolecon.2023.10805210.1016/j.ecolecon.2023.108052
CCA (Council of Canadian Academies) (2023). Framing Challenges and Opportunities for Canada. Retrieved November 2023, from https://cca-reports.ca/reports/gene-edited-organisms-for-pest-control/. Framing Challenges and Opportunities for Canada: Expert Panel on Regulating Gene-Edited Organisms for Pest ControlJennifer Kuzma2023Gene-editing technologies are poised to revolutionize pest management, offering innovative solutions to address challenges in public health, conservation, and agriculture. However, the rapid evolution of these tools introduces uncertainties and risks, necessitating a careful examination of their efficacy, safety, and appropriateness in natural environments. This report underscores the urgency for Canada to harness its research and development capabilities, adapt regulatory frameworks, and establish a tailored governance regime to effectively navigate the complex landscape of gene-editing applications in pest control. By addressing knowns and unknowns, Canada has the opportunity to lead in developing regulatory structures that not only meet national interests but also serve as a global model for jurisdictions grappling with similar challenges in the realm of genetic pest control.This report highlights the pervasive impact of environmental pests and the transformative potential of gene-editing technologies in pest management. Emphasizing the urgent need for consideration due to climate change and resistance issues, it calls for comprehensive policy discussions on applications, risk assessment, and public engagement. The report explores implications for research, assesses regulatory limitations, and envisions a holistic approach to pest management regulation.Gene-editing, pest management, risk, governance, environmenthttps://cca-reports.ca/reports/gene-edited-organisms-for-pest-control/0
Grieger, K. and Kuzma, J. (2023) Ensuring Sustainable Novel Plant Biotechnologies Requires Formalized Research and Assessment Programs. ACS Agric. Sci. Technol. Article ASAP. doi: 10.1021/acsagscitech.3c00380. PDF. Graphical abstract. Supplementary cover artEnsuring Sustainable Novel Plant Biotechnologies Requires Formalized Research and Assessment ProgramsKhara Grieger, Jennifer Kuzma2023To ensure sustainable food systems that rely on novel plant biotechnologies, sustainability must be assessed through formalized research programs with fit-for-purpose tools and approaches. This Viewpoint puts forward one approach for establishing such research programs for evaluating the sustainability of novel plant biotechnologies befitting the 21st century.Published as part of the ACS Agricultural Science & Technology virtual special issue “Plant Biotechnology, Molecular Breeding, and Food Security," this article highlights the pressing need for formalized research and assessment tools to evaluate the sustainability of new plant biotechnologies. Current oversight processes fall short by primarily focusing on safety and environmental concerns. To address this gap, the authors propose a federal office that coordinates research and standardizes assessment parameters. This approach ensures that emerging biotechnologies align with sustainability goals, provide broader benefits, and gain public trust, ultimately promoting sustainable food systems.Plant biotechnologies, Sustainability assessment, Genetic engineering, Federal oversight, Sustainable food systemshttps://pubs.acs.org/doi/10.1021/acsagscitech.3c00380#10.1021/acsagscitech.3c00380
Jones, M. S., & Brown, Z. S. (2023). Food for thought: Assessing the consumer welfare impacts of deploying irreversible, landscape-scale biotechnologies. Food Policy, 121, 102529. doi: 10.1016/j.foodpol.2023.102529. PDF. Graphical abstract. Food for thought: Assessing the consumer welfare impacts of deploying irreversible, landscape-scale biotechnologiesMichael S. Jones, Zack Brown2023Genetically engineered insects have gained attention as regionally deployed pest control technologies, with substantial applications in agriculture for combatting intractable crop pests and diseases. One potential tool is a ‘gene drive’, using CRISPR-based gene editing. In gene drive, preferentially inherited, engineered traits are spread throughout a geographic area to reduce pest populations or inhibit disease transmission, while also potentially reducing pesticide use and crop prices. But the self-perpetuating nature of gene drives presents a consequence, in that consumers could eventually be limited to only host crops grown in the presence of these genetically engineered insects. In this study, we analyze potential consumer welfare impacts of these technologies using discrete choice experiment data from a representative sample of U.S. adults, examining preferences regarding gene drive use to control spotted wing drosophila in blueberries and Asian citrus psyllid in orange juice (OJ) production. We find smaller average discounts for gene drives versus increased conventional pesticide use or genetically modified crops. Only 27% and 25% of blueberry and OJ consumers, respectively, are estimated to derive disutility from gene drives. However, gene drive disutility for these consumers is so large that elimination of non-drive options from their choice sets results in negative (blueberries) or neutral (OJ) effects to aggregate consumer welfare when weighed against gains to other consumers from reduced prices. Positive welfare effects are recovered by retaining availability of non-gene-drive products. We argue that this type of analysis will be increasingly important as landscape-level biotechnologies are deployed to address challenges to agricultural sustainability.Gene drives are a biotechnology under development for agricultural pest control. If used in agriculture, gene drives could eliminate products not using them. We surveyed US consumers about their preferences regarding gene drives. US consumers prefer gene drive insects over genetically engineered crops. For studied products, gene drive insect control would not improve consumer surplus.Plant biotechnologies, Sustainability assessment, Genetic engineering, Federal oversight, Sustainable food systemshttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2023.10252910.1016/j.foodpol.2023.102529
Kuzma, J., Grieger, K., Cimadori, I., Cummings, C. L., Loschin, N., & Wei, W. (2023). Parameters, practices, and preferences for regulatory review of emerging biotechnology products in food and agriculture. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 11, 1256388. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2023.1256388. PDFParameters, practices, and preferences for regulatory review of emerging biotechnology products in food and agricultureJennifer Kuzma, Khara Grieger, Ilaria Cimadori, Christopher L. Cummings, Nick Loschin, Wei Wei2023This paper evaluates the U.S. regulatory review of three emerging biotechnology products according to parameters, practices, and endpoints of assessments that are important to stakeholders and publics. First, we present a summary of the literature on variables that are important to non-expert publics in governing biotech products, including ethical, social, policy process, and risk and benefit parameters. Second, we draw from our USDA-funded project results that surveyed stakeholders with subject matter expertise about their attitudes towards important risk, benefit, sustainability, and societal impact parameters for assessing novel agrifood technologies, including biotech. Third, we evaluate the regulatory assessments of three food and agricultural biotechnology case studies that have been reviewed under U.S. regulatory agencies and laws of the Coordinated Framework for the Regulation of Biotechnology, including gene-edited soybeans, beef cattle, and mustard greens. Evaluation of the regulatory review process was based on parameters identified in steps 1 and 2 which were deemed important to both publics and stakeholders. Based on this review, we then propose several policy options for U.S. federal agencies to strengthen their oversight processes to better align with a broader range of parameters to support sustainable agrifood products that rely on novel technologies. These policy options include 1) those that would not require new institutions or legal foundations (such as conducting Environmental Impact Statements and/or requiring a minimal level of safety data), 2) those that would require a novel institutional or cross-institutional framework (such as developing a publicly-available website and/or performing holistic sustainability assessments), and 3) those that would require the agencies to have additional legal authorities (such as requiring agencies to review biotech products according to a minimal set of health, environmental, and socio-economic parameters). Overall, the results of this analysis will be important for guiding policy practice and formulation in the regulatory assessment of emerging biotechnology products that challenge existing legal and institutional frameworks.This article reviews the U.S. regulatory process for gene-edited foods and finds that it does not adequately consider public concerns about transparency, trust, choice, equity, animal welfare, and longer-term ecosystem consequences. The authors propose policy changes to make the review process more holistic and transparent, and to give consumers more choice. These findings highlight the need for a more robust regulatory framework for gene-edited foods that reflects the concerns of the public.Regulation, Risk assessment, Governance, Biotechnology, Gene editinghttps://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2023.125638810.3389/fbioe.2023.1256388
Medin, R. & J. Kuzma (2023). Engineered and natural gene drives: mechanistically the same, yet not same in kind. Nature Communications 14: 5994. doi: 10.1038/s41467-023-41727-3.PDFEngineered and natural gene drives: mechanistically the same, yet not same in kindJennifer Kuzma2023We propose the use of the terms natural gene drive (NGD) and engineered gene drive (EGD) arguing against James et al., who think both should be included within the term “gene drive”, based on their mechanistic similarities. Thanks to CRISPR-Cas-based gene editing, engineered gene drive has suddenly become feasible as a potential cost-effective pest control tool that could help us resolve wicked challenges. In nature, several organisms harbor genes that “selfishly” drive themselves into populations. This natural gene drive uses similar mechanisms to the ones use today to drive engineered genes into laboratory populations. In this article we disagree with James et al. who have recently proposed that because natural and engineered gene drives are mechanistically indistinguishable from a molecular standpoint, they should both be referred as “gene drives” because “a gene drive is a gene drive.” We instead propose that two terms be used to distinguish between natural and engineered gene drives, we second Wells and Steinbrecher arguments, and propose to use the terms natural gene drive (NGD) and engineered gene drive (EGD).This article argues that natural and engineered gene drives (NGDs and EGDs) should be distinguished in two ways. First, EGDs are a new technology with unknown ecological and societal risks, while NGDs are familiar and have had time to adapt to their ecosystems. Second, EGDs are likely to be used to drive genes that benefit humans, while NGDs are driven by natural selection. The authors argue that lumping NGDs and EGDs under the same term, "gene drive," is disingenuous and could erode public trust. They also argue that it is too early to safely define NGDs and EGDs as the same just because their molecular mechanisms are similar. The authors propose that the terms "natural gene drive" (NGD) and "engineered gene drive" (EGD) be used to distinguish between these two types of gene drives. They argue that this distinction is important for public understanding and for the governance of these technologies.Evolutionary ecology, Policy, Synthetic biologyhttps://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-41727-310.1038/s41467-023-41727-3
Nelson, N., Harris, A., Anarde, K., Hino, M., Grieger, K. 2023. Exercise Caution: Tidal Floods May Contain Pollutants. North Carolina Sea Grant. Available: https://ncseagrant.ncsu.edu/quick-links/tidalfloods/Exercise Caution: Tidal Floods May Contain PollutantsKhara Grieger2023Coastal communities in North Carolina and other states are increasingly dealing with tidal floods. “Tidal floods” refers to the overflowing of saltwater from the ocean and other marine water bodies (sounds, estuaries) onto land. During these events, tidal floodwaters can become contaminated with various biological and chemical substances. For these reasons, it is recommended to minimize or avoid contact with floodwater to protect our health and the health of our communities. A multidisciplinary team is trying to better understand the water quality of tidal floodwaters, and ways in which we can protect our health. While the research is ongoing, this fact sheet may be helpful for government officials, researchers, advisory boards, local extension agents, and community outreach teams to better understand the potential health impacts of tidal floodwaters on coastal communities. Specific topics covered in this fact sheet include: ● What is tidal flooding? ● What do we know about the water quality of tidal floods? ● What should I do if I encounter tidal floodwaters? ● Can we predict when tidal flooding may occur? ● How can I learn more about tidal flooding?Currently, we know very little about the water quality of tidal floods. Water quality refers to a range of chemical, physical, and biological characteristics of water (USGS 2019). Floodwaters may have poor water quality, as various biological and chemical contaminants may be introduced into the floodwaters from different sources, including yards, urban areas, or wastewater systems (e.g., sewage or septic). Biological contaminants can include bacterial, viral, or protozoan pathogens (e.g., E. coli, Vibrio), and chemical contaminants may include heavy metals (e.g., lead, mercury), pesticides, and industrial chemicals. While there have been very few published studies that have measured the water quality of tidal floods, it is important to consider the potential impact of water quality on public health in flooded areas. This is because people may walk or bicycle through tidal floodwaters and therefore come into contact with the floodwaters. If the water has poor quality, it may pose a health risk. Even after tidal floodwaters recede, contaminants can remain in the soil of yards, green areas (e.g., playgrounds), or in surrounding wetlands for months (CDC 2021a). More research is needed to better understand the water quality and public health impacts of tidal floods.Tidal floods, safety, risk, public healthhttps://ncseagrant.ncsu.edu/wp-content/uploads/2023/08/Tidal-Floods-Fact-Sheet-NC-Sea-Grant-1-1.pdf0
Furgurson, J., Loschin, N., Butoto, E., Abugu, M., Gillespie, C. J., Brown, R., Ferraro, G., Speicher, N., Stokes, R., Budnick, A., Geist, K., Alirigia, R., Andrews, A., & Mainello, A. (2023). Seizing the policy moment in crop biotech regulation: An interdisciplinary response to the Executive Order on biotechnology. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 11, 1241537. DOI: 10.3389/fbioe.2023.1241537. PDF. Seizing the policy moment in crop biotech regulation: an interdisciplinary response to the Executive Order on biotechnologyFurgurson, Loschin, Butoto, Abugu, Gillespie, Brown, Ferraro, Speicher, Stokes, Budnick, Geist, Alirigia, Andrews and Mainello2023The Biden Administration's Executive Order on Biotechnology and Biomanufacturing has opened a policy window for revising the regulatory framework for agricultural biotechnology products. While genetically engineered crops can be controversial, the Executive Order provides limited guidance on their development. The US regulatory system for crop biotechnology has been complex and controversial since its inception. Current regulations lack the transparency and public deliberation necessary to reflect wider societal views. Various policy actors have different narratives about biotechnology governance, emphasizing either the product or the process. The article, written by interdisciplinary scholars from the Genetic Engineering and Society Center at North Carolina State University, highlights the historical challenges of the US regulatory system in adapting to new genetic engineering technologies. This article critically examines the Biden Administration's Executive Order on Biotechnology and its implications for the regulatory landscape of agricultural biotechnology products. By highlighting historical challenges and the current gaps in the US regulatory system, the authors underscore the urgent need for enhanced transparency and public engagement. Their proposed solutions, including the creation of a shared database ecosystem and reforming public engagement practices, offer a roadmap for building public trust and ensuring responsible biotechnology research and development.Genetic engineering, Coordinated framework, GMO, Public engagement, Policyhttps://doi.org/10.3389/fbioe.2023.124153710.3389/fbioe.2023.1241537
Gillespie, C. J. (2023). Regulations for the Bioeconomy. Issues in Science and Technology 39, no 4 (Summer 2023) Forum. Retrieved from https://issues.org/maxon-regulating-bioeconomy-forum/#christopher-j-gillespieRegulations for the BioeconomyChristopher Gillespie2023In this opinion letter, Christopher J. Gillespie responds to Mary E. Maxon's call to action regarding the need for updated biotechnology governance. Gillespie emphasizes the importance of aligning regulations with the evolving context of the bioeconomy. He concurs with Maxon's proposal for the establishment of the Initiative Coordination Office within the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy. However, he stresses that coordination should be central to the regulatory framework rather than a mere accessory. Gillespie highlights the challenges faced by individual regulatory bodies, such as the EPA, USDA, and FDA, in sharing regulatory space. He underscores the necessity of incorporating public input into the regulatory process, emphasizing the diverse perceptions of risk and safety among communities. Gillespie also references a 2012 report by the Administrative Conference of the United States, which discusses the challenges of shared regulatory space. He concludes by emphasizing the need for deliberate policy action to foster a regulatory ecosystem that promotes the bioeconomy while ensuring public trust.AgBioFEWS Fellow Christopher Gillespie's response to Mary E. Maxon's article underscores the pressing need for a revamped regulatory framework in the U.S. bioeconomy. His emphasis on the central role of coordination, the importance of public input in defining risk and safety, and the challenges of shared regulatory space highlight the complexities of governing emerging biotechnologies and their broader implications for the nation's future.Biotechnology Governance, Regulatory Structure, Bioeconomy, Coordinationhttps://issues.org/maxon-regulating-bioeconomy-forum/#christopher-j-gillespie0
Merck, A.W., Grieger, K.D., Deviney, A., Marshall, A.-M. Using a Phosphorus Flow Diagram as a Boundary Object to Inform Stakeholder Engagement. Sustainability 2023, 15, 11496. doi: 10.3390/su151511496Using a Phosphorus Flow Diagram as a Boundary Object to Inform Stakeholder EngagementAshton Merck, Khara Grieger2023Phosphorus (P) is essential for life on Earth, yet its current management is unsustainable. Stakeholder engagement is urgently needed to help ensure that scientific and technical solutions to improve P sustainability meet the needs of diverse groups, yet there are comparatively few studies that provide insights into stakeholder views, perceptions, or concerns. In this opinion, we use a mass flow diagram of P as a boundary object to understand the complex challenges of sustainable P management. In particular, we map US stakeholder groups onto the mass flow diagram to incorporate human factors into mass flows at a national scale. Our approach is grounded in well-established social–scientific methodologies, such as stakeholder mapping and social network analysis, but is applied in a novel way that can be generalized to other mass flows and geographic areas. We then suggest ways that researchers can use the annotated flow diagram to identify both knowledge gaps and research gaps in stakeholder engagement, especially in interdisciplinary or convergence research contexts.In this opinion, we used the P flow diagram as a boundary object to identify and organize potential US stakeholders in P sustainability, grounded in existing knowledge from literature on stakeholder engagement in P sustainability. The process outlined here reflects existing best practices in stakeholder research to define stakeholders as those who can influence, as well as those who are influenced by, decisions about the environment, subject to pragmatic constraints on participation. Furthermore, the approach proposed here responds to calls by other researchers to employ inclusive practices to involve previously overlooked stakeholders rather than relying on the “usual suspects” already known to decision makers and researchers.Stakeholder engagement, Phosphorus, Sustainability,Bboundary objecthttps://doi.org/10.3390/su15151149610.3390/su151511496
Wei, W., Grieger, K., Cummings, C. L., Loschin, N., & Kuzma, J. (2023) Identifying sustainability assessment parameters for genetically engineered agrifoods. Plants, People, Planet. https://doi.org/10.1002/ppp3.10411PDFIdentifying sustainability assessment parameters for genetically engineered agrifoodsWei Wei, Khara Grieger, Christopher L. Cummings, Nick Loschin, Jennifer Kuzma2023To achieve international sustainable development goals, food and agricultural production need to rely on sustainable and resilient practices. Traditional breeding as well as the use of new agricultural technologies, including genetic engineering and gene editing, have the potential to help achieve sustainable agrifood production. Although numerous oversight mechanisms exist to guarantee the secure and sustainable advancement and utilization of genetically engineered agrifoods, the majority of these mechanisms heavily depend on a narrow set of parameters to assess risks and safety concerning human health and nontarget organisms. However, a more comprehensive range of parameters should be considered to promote environmental and social sustainability in a more holistic manner. This Opinion article argues that to achieve a more sustainable agrifood production that relies on genetic engineering, governance systems related to new agrifood biotechnologies should incorporate a broader array of environmental, health, ethical, and societal factors to ensure their sustainability in the long-term. To facilitate this process, we propose a set of parameters to help evaluate the sustainability of agrifoods that rely on genetic engineering. We then discuss major challenges and opportunities for formalizing sustainability parameters in US governance policy and decision-making systems. Overall, this work contributes to further developing a more comprehensive assessment framework that aims to minimize potential risks and maximize potential benefits of agrifood biotechnology while also fostering sustainability.This Opinion article argues that to achieve a more sustainable agrifood production that relies on genetic engineering, governance systems related to new agrifood biotechnologies should incorporate a broader array of environmental, health, ethical, and societal factors to ensure their sustainability in the long-term. To facilitate this process, we propose a set of parameters to help evaluate the sustainability of agrifoods that rely on genetic engineering. We then discuss major challenges and opportunities for formalizing sustainability parameters in US governance policy and decision-making systems. Overall, this work contributes to further developing a more comprehensive assessment framework that aims to minimize potential risks and maximize potential benefits of agrifood biotechnology while also fostering sustainability.Agriculture, Benefits, Genetic engineering, Risks, Sustainabilityhttps://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ppp3.1041110.1002/ppp3.10411
Tang L, Kuzma J, Zhang X, Song X, Li Y, Liu H, and Hu G. Synthetic biology and governance research in China: a 40-year evolution. Scientometrics (2023): 1-18. DOI: 10.1007/s11192-023-04789-0Synthetic biology and governance research in China: a 40-year evolutionJennifer Kuzma2023The governance of emerging technologies has become a topic of global concern, not only for national competitiveness, but also for national security. Among other technologies, synthetic biology (SynBio) has been prioritized in the policy agenda of many countries; China is no exception. Unfortunately, despite the interconnectedness of governance practices and research development, few studies have investigated the current situation and development trajectory of this emerging dual use technology. To fill in this gap, this study focuses on China and investigates the pattern and evolution of its SynBio and related biosafety and biosecurity research published in both domestic and international databases. We find that despite its late entrance to the field, national government funding plays a critical role in China’s SynBio research. However, the funding ratio of SynBio as well as SynBio safety research is lower than China’s average when considering all fields. The structural topic model analysis reveals that the biological sciences dominate China’s SynBio research and slowly diffuse to other disciplines such as materials science, physics, and medicine, while perspectives from Chinese social scientists are barely recorded on the international academic stage. We also find little overlap of topics between China’s domestic and international output on SynBio and its safety research. Speculations and policy implications are discussed in the end.This article study delves into China's 40-year trajectory in synthetic biology (SynBio) research and governance. Despite a late start, China has become a global leader in SynBio, largely driven by national funding. However, the paper highlights a disparity in thematic focus between domestic and international outputs and a notable lack of social science perspectives in domestic research, underscoring the need for comprehensive governance that integrates diverse interdisciplinary insights for this emerging dual-use technology.Synthetic biology, Biosafety, Biosecurity, Structural topic model, Governance of emerging technologieshttps://doi.org/10.1007/s11192-023-04789-010.1007/s11192-023-04789-0
Sulis, D. B., Jiang, X., Yang, C., ... Wang, J. P. (2023). Multiplex CRISPR editing of wood for sustainable fiber production. Science. https://doi.org/add4514Multiplex CRISPR editing of wood for sustainable fiber productionRodolphe Barangou, Jack Wang2023The domestication of forest trees for a more sustainable fiber bioeconomy has long been hindered by the complexity and plasticity of lignin, a biopolymer in wood that is recalcitrant to chemical and enzymatic degradation. Here, we show that multiplex CRISPR editing enables precise woody feedstock design for combinatorial improvement of lignin composition and wood properties. By assessing every possible combination of 69,123 multigenic editing strategies for 21 lignin biosynthesis genes, we deduced seven different genome editing strategies targeting the concurrent alteration of up to six genes and produced 174 edited poplar variants. CRISPR editing increased the wood carbohydrate-to-lignin ratio up to 228% that of wild type, leading to more-efficient fiber pulping. The edited wood alleviates a major fiber-production bottleneck regardless of changes in tree growth rate and could bring unprecedented operational efficiencies, bioeconomic opportunities, and environmental benefits.{Editor's Summary] Trees provide an important natural resource, but breeding for optimal wood properties is time consuming and hindered by the complexity of tree genetics and diversity. Sulis et al. show that CRISPR technologies can be readily deployed to enhance wood properties and augment the sustainability of forest trees (see the Perspective by Zuin Zeidler). The authors generated multiplexed genetic alterations modifying wood composition in poplar with more desirable traits for fiber pulping and lower carbon emissions. This work demonstrates that genome editing can be harnessed for breeding more efficient trees, which will provide timely opportunities for sustainable forestry and a more efficient bioeconomy. —DJCRISPR, Forestry, Multigenic gene-editing, Sustainability, Bioeconomyhttps://www.science.org/doi/10.1126/science.add451410.1126/science.add4514
Ethridge, S., Grieger, K., Locke, A., Everman, W., Jordan, D., & Leon, R. (2023). Views of RNAi approaches for weed management in turfgrass systems. Weed Science, 1-33. doi: 10.1017/wsc.2023.37Views of RNAi approaches for weed management in turfgrass systemsSandy Ethridge, Khara Grieger, Ramon Leon2023Public concern regarding the use of herbicides in urban areas (e.g., golf courses, parks, lawns) is increasing. Thus, there is a need for alternative methods for weed control that are safe for the public, effective against weeds, and yet selective to turfgrass and other desirable species. New molecular tools such as RNAi have a potential to meet all those requirements, but before these technologies can be implemented, it is critical to understand the perceptions of key stakeholders to facilitate adoption as well as regulatory processes. With this in mind, turfgrass system managers, such as golf course superintendents and lawn care providers, were surveyed to gain insight to the perception and potential adoption of RNAi technology for weed management. Based on survey results, turfgrass managers believe that cost of weed management and time spent managing weeds are the main challenges faced in their fields. When considering new weed management tools, survey respondents were most concerned about cost, efficacy, and efficiency of a new product. Survey respondents were also optimistic toward RNAi for weed management and would either use this technology in their own fields or be willing to conduct research to develop RNAi herbicides. Although respondents believed that the general public would have some concerns about this technology, they did not believe this to be the most important factor for them when choosing new weed management tools. The need for new herbicides to balance weed control challenges and public demands is a central factor for turfgrass managers’ willingness to use RNAi-based weed control in turfgrass systems. They believe their clientele will be accepting of RNAi tools, although further research is needed to investigate how a wider range of stakeholders perceive RNAi tools for turfgrass management more broadly.The need for new herbicides to balance weed control challenges and public demands is a central factor for turfgrass managers’ willingness to use RNAi-based weed control in turfgrass systems. They believe their clientele will be accepting of RNAi tools, although further research is needed to investigate how a wider range of stakeholders perceive RNAi tools for turfgrass management more broadly.Biotechnology, Perceptions, Acceptance, Turfgrasshttps://doi.org/10.1017/wsc.2023.3710.1017/wsc.2023.37
Zarate, S., Cimadori, I., Jones, M. S., Roca, M. M., & Barnhill, S.K. (2023). Assessing agricultural gene editing regulation in Latin America: An analysis of how policy windows and policy entrepreneurs shape agricultural gene editing regulatory regimes. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology, 11, 1209308. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2023.1209308. PDF. GraphicAssessing agricultural gene editing regulation in Latin America: an analysis of how policy windows and policy entrepreneurs shape agricultural gene editing regulatory regimesSebastian Zarate, Ilaria Cimadori, Michael S. Jones, Maria Mercedes Roca, S. Kathleen Barnhill2023This article explores the new developments and challenges of agricultural Gene Editing (GED) regulation in primarily nine countries of Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC) Region: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay and Peru. As Gene Editing technology develops, Latin America and the Caribbean regulatory regimes struggle to keep pace. Developers and regulators face challenges such as consumer perceptions, intellectual property, R&D funding (private and public), training, environmental and social impact, and access to domestic and international markets. Some Latin America and the Caribbean countries (e.g., Argentina) interpret existing legislation to promulgate regulations for biotechnology and Genetically Modified Organisms (GMOs), while others (e.g., Brazil and Honduras) have specific legislation for Genetically Modified Organisms. In both those cases, often a case-by-case approach is chosen to determine whether a Gene Editing organism is subject to Genetically Modified Organisms regulations or not. Other countries such as Peru have opted to ban the technology due to its perceived resemblance to transgenic Genetically Modified Organisms. After presenting the regulatory landscape for agricultural Gene Editing in Latin America and the Caribbean, this article addresses some of the differences and similarities across the region. Some countries have had more foresight and have dedicated resources to increase capacity and develop regulations (e.g., Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Guatemala, Honduras, Mexico before 2018) while others struggle with bureaucratic limitations and partisanship of policymaking (e.g., Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Mexico after 2018). We propose that the differences and similarities between these regulatory regimes have emerged in part as a result of policy entrepreneurs (influential individuals actively involved in policy making) taking advantage of policy windows (opportunities for shaping policy and regulation). The third and remaining sections of this study discuss our main findings. Based on 41 semi structured interviews with regulators, scientists, product developers, NGOs and activists, we arrived at three main findings. First, there seems to be a consensus among most regulators interviewed that having harmonized regimes is a positive step to facilitate product development and deployment, leading to commercialization. Second, reducing bureaucracy (e.g., paper work) and increasing flexibility in regulation go hand in hand to expedite the acquisition of key lab materials required by developers in countries with less robust regimes such as Peru and Bolivia. Finally, developing public and private partnerships, fostering transparency, and increasing the involvement of marginalized groups may increase the legitimacy of Gene Editing regulation.This is perhaps the first comparative analysis of gene editing regulation and policy in Latin America.Gene-editing, Latin America, Policy,Rregulation, Agricultural biotechnologyhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fbioe.2023.1209308/full10.3389/fbioe.2023.1209308/full
George D. and Delborne J. “Boundary-Pushing Citizen Engagement.” Issues in Science and Technology 39, no. 3 (Spring 2023). Retrieved from https://issues.org/citizen-engagement-pta-farooque-kessler-forum/. PDFBoundary-Pushing Citizen EngagementDalton George, Jason Delborne2023A discussion of “How Would You Defend the Planet from Asteroids?” (Issues, Winter 2023), by Mahmud Farooque and Jason L. Kessler, where they reflect on the Asteroid Grand Challenge (AGC), a series of public deliberation exercises organized by members of the Expert & Citizen Assessment of Science and Technology (ECAST) network and NASA in 2014.Should we continue to pursue experimental engagement from the outside or work to concentrate capacity for engagement within federal agencies? While this “outside” vs. “inside” debate remains perennial for pursuing political change, we suggest that the two strategies must work hand-in-hand.Stakeholder engagement, NASA, Citizen deliberationshttps://issues.org/citizen-engagement-pta-farooque-kessler-forum/0
Grieger, K., Merck, A., Deviney, A. et al. What are stakeholder views and needs for achieving phosphorus sustainability?. Environ Syst Decis (2023). DOI: 10.1007/s10669-023-09917-y. PDFWhat are Stakeholder Views and Needs for Achieving Phosphorus Sustainability?Khara Grieger, Ashton Merck2023Our society depends on the effective management of phosphorus (P). Phosphorus is a key component of agricultural fertilizers to improve crop yields, and also plays a critical role in many industrial processes and consumer products. In the past decade, there have been numerous calls for innovative approaches to manage P more sustainably, as it is a nonrenewable resource that can adversely impact aquatic ecosystems from runoff and inefficiencies in P use. To develop more sustainable solutions that will ultimately be adopted, diverse stakeholder perspectives must be recognized, including those in industry, government, academia, non-governmental organizations, and other civil groups. This study responds to this need by identifying stakeholder views, needs, concerns, and challenges regarding P sustainability. An online survey was developed and deployed to individuals identified as P sustainability experts and professionals in the U.S. and abroad. Based on responses from 96 stakeholder participants from a range of sectors, areas of expertise, and geographies, we found that the vast majority of stakeholders considered current P use to be unsustainable and were very concerned about the ability to manage P sustainably. Stakeholder participants did not distinguish between urgent and long-term challenges, and perceived financial and regulatory issues to be of greatest importance. Stakeholder participants expressed a range of needs to improve P management systems, including improved management practices, new technologies, enhanced regulations, and better approaches for engagement. Outcomes from this work can help inform future research, engagement, and policy priorities to ensure sustainable P management solutions based on stakeholder-identified perspectives and needs.Overall, results from this study may help inform future research, engagement, and policy priorities to ensure sustainable P management solutions based on stakeholder-identified perspectives and needs.Sustainability, Stakeholders, Phosphorushttps://rdcu.be/ddlwg10.1007/s10669-023-09917-y
Cummings, C., Selfa, T., Lindberg, S. et al. Identifying public trust building priorities of gene editing in agriculture and food. Agric Hum Values (2023). doi: 10.1007/s10460-023-10465-z. PDF* (requires Unity ID login)Identifying public trust building priorities of gene editing in agriculture and foodChristopher L. Cummings2023Gene editing in agriculture and food (GEAF) is a nascent development with few products and is unfamiliar among the wider US public. GEAF has garnered significant praise for its potential to solve for a variety of agronomic problems but has also evoked controversy regarding safety and ethical standards of development and application. Given the wake of other agribiotechnology debates including GMOs (genetically modified organisms), this study made use of 36 in-depth key interviews to build the first U.S. based typology of proponent and critic priorities for shaping public trust in GEAF actors and objects. Key organizational actors provide early and foundational messaging, which is likely to contribute heavily to public salience, comprehension, and decision-making as potential consumers reflect upon their experiences, envision future outcomes, and consider the reputation of those trying to influence them. As is documented in our results, the trust-building priorities of these groups often stand in opposition to one another and are influenced by distinct motivations for how the public will come to trust or distrust GEAF actors and objects as more products are developed and enter the market.Key organizational actors provide early and foundational messaging, which is likely to contribute heavily to public salience, comprehension, and decision-making as potential consumers reflect upon their experiences, envision future outcomes, and consider the reputation of those trying to influence them. As is documented in our results, the trust-building priorities of these groups often stand in opposition to one another and are influenced by distinct motivations for how the public will come to trust or distrust GEAF actors and objects as more products are developed and enter the market.Gene-edited Foods, Trust, Trust building, CRISPRhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10460-023-10465-z10.1007/s10460-023-10465-z
Sachs, R; Kuzma, J.; Trier, X.; International Risk Governance Center (IRGC) (2022) Ensuring the environmental sustainability of emerging technologies. Florin, Marie-Valentine (Ed). DOI: 10.5075/epfl-irgc-302431. PDFEnsuring the environmental sustainability of emerging technologies -3. Guidance to distinct actorsJennifer Kuzma2023To support economic development, governments and industries in major countries are committing to massive new technological investments before, or perhaps without, undertaking a comprehensive assessment of their environmental impacts. Existing policy frameworks concerning some emerging technology applications do not provide sufficient clarity for how these technologies will be regulated, especially if the risk of environmental harm is not proven and impacts are indirect or manifest in the longer term. For example, this is the case of the transition to a digital economy that requires building massive data centres; innovation in advanced materials such as semiconductors or smart materials 1 expected to offer major improvements in a wide variety of domains; or the transition to all-electric vehicles. Do we know the full extent of consequences on the environment?Guidance to distinct stakeholder groups who can contribute to either creating or mitigating threats that the development and deployment of emerging technologies could pose to long-term environmental sustainability.Risk Governance, Environmental Sustainability, Sustainability Compass, Guidance, IRGChttps://infoscience.epfl.ch/record/30243110.5075/epfl-irgc-302431
Berube, D. M. (2023). Pandemics and resilience: Lessons we should have learned from zika (Ser. Risk, Systems and Decisions). Springer Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-25370-6Pandemics and resilience: Lessons we should have learned from zikaDavid Berube2023The aim of the book was to produce the most comprehensive examination of a pandemic that has ever been attempted. By cataloging the full extent of the Zika pandemic, this book will be the most complete history and epistemic contextualization ever attempted to date. The work should function as the primary source for students, researchers, and scholars who need information about the Zika pandemic.This book examines the technical literature, digital and popular literature, and online materials to fully contextualize this event and provide a bona fide record of this event and its implications for the future. It is somewhat serendipitous that while this work was underway, we are going through another pandemic. One of the primary lessons we did not learn by Zika was pandemic events will return repeatedly, and we need to learn from each one of them to prepare the planet for the next one. Just because Zika seemed to have died out does not make it less important. We were lucky that the virus evolved into what seemed to be a less virulent version of itself, and the vector mosquitoes were concentrated elsewhere. Finally, this book represents a tour de force in scholarship involving nearly 4,000 sources of information and does not shy from a detailed examination of the controversies, conspiracies, and long-term consequences when we avoid learning from outbreaks, such as Zika.Builds guidance for pandemic management to upgrade responses to infectious diseasesPresents the most complete history and epistemic contextualization ever attempted to dateRepresents a tour de force in scholarship involving nearly 4,000 sources of informationPublic Health, Environmental Health, Pandemics, Zika, Zoonotic Diseaseshttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-25370-610.1007/978-3-031-25370-6
Kuzma, J., Williams, T.T. (2023). Public Inclusion and Responsiveness in Governance of Genetically Engineered Animals. In: Gattinger, M. (eds) Democratizing Risk Governance. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. doi:10.1007/978-3-031-24271-7_8. PDFPublic Inclusion and Responsiveness in Governance of Genetically Engineered AnimalsJennifer Kuzma, Teshanee Williams2023Genetically engineered (GE) animal-based foods have entered the Canadian market in recent years, yet a significant proportion of the public is reticent to consume them. Responsible innovation has been suggested as a paradigm for bolstering democratic processes and aligning societal values with technology research and development. In this chapter, we examine regulatory decision-making for the first GE animal approved for food consumption in Canada, the AquAdvantage Salmon (AAS), according to two principles of responsible innovation (RI)—inclusion and responsiveness. First, we look at the regulatory approval process for AAS to examine when there were opportunities for public and stakeholder participation in decision-making (inclusion). Second, we report on our studies using textual analysis of one public participation window—a series of Parliamentary hearings associated with GE animal oversight in Canada in 2016. Here, we examine whether decision-makers incorporated the diverse stakeholder perspectives and concerns voiced at the hearings into their final reports (responsiveness). Finally, we identify barriers to putting inclusion and responsiveness into practice in risk governance of GEOs and discuss ways to overcome these barriers to facilitate responsible innovation practices in oversight systems for emerging technologies.Genetically engineered animals have entered the Canadian market, yet a significant proportion of the public is reticent to consume them. This chapter examines regulatory decision-making for the first GE animal approved for food consumption in Canada according to two principles of responsible innovation - inclusion and responsiveness.Risk Management, Genetically Engineered Foods, Genetically Modified Foods, AquAdvantage Salmon, Responsible Innovation, Genetically Engineered Salmon, Genetically Modified Salmon, Regulation, Public Participation, Inclusion, Responsiveness, Governance, Oversight, Risk Analysis, Public Policy, Transparency, Decision-Making, Public Engagement, Cultural Theoryhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-031-24271-7_810.1007/978-3-031-24271-7_8
Beck, M., ...Kuzma, J. et al. (2023). Motivated Reasoning and Risk Governance: What Risk Scholars and Practitioners Need to Know. In: Gattinger, M. (eds) Democratizing Risk Governance. Palgrave Macmillan, Cham. 10.1007/978-3-031-24271-7_2. PDFMotivated Reasoning and Risk Governance: What Risk Scholars and Practitioners Need to KnowJennifer Kuzma2023Empirical research in psychology and political science shows that individuals collect, process, and interpret information in a goal-driven fashion. Several theorists have argued that rather than striving for accuracy in their conclusions, individuals are motivated to arrive at conclusions that align with their previous beliefs, values, or identity commitments. The literature refers to this phenomenon broadly as ‘motivated reasoning’. In the context of risk governance, motivated reasoning can help to explain why people vary in their risk perceptions, evaluations, and preferences about risk management. But our current understanding of the phenomenon is incomplete, including the degree to which motivated reasoning should be considered rational and reasonable. Further, the research on motivated reasoning is largely unknown among risk practitioners. This chapter identifies key theoretical models of motivated reasoning, discusses the conceptual differences between them, and explores the implications of motivated reasoning for risk governance. Motivated reasoning is often labeled as ‘irrational’ and thus seen to prevent effective decision-making about risk, but this chapter challenges this assessment. The chapter concludes by identifying theoretical and empirical implications for researchers studying motivated reasoning and risk, as well as practical implications for policymakers and regulators involved in risk governance.Research shows that individuals collect, process, and interpret information in a goal-driven fashion. This chapter discusses key theoretical models of motivated reasoning, explores the implications of motivated reasoning for risk governance, and identifies practical implications for policymakers and regulators involved in risk governance.Motivated Reasoning, Bias, Risk Governance, Risk Perception, Cultural Cognition, Motivated Skepticism, Identity Protection, Bayesian Updating, Rationality, Evidence-Based Decision-Making, Framing, Information Processing, Strong Objectivity, Polarization, Conflict, Information Processing, Affect, System 1 Vs. System 2 Thinking, Accuracy, Biased Assimilation, John Q. Public Model Of Motivated Reasoning, Democratization, Values, Motivated Skepticismhttps://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-031-24271-7_210.1007/978-3-031-24271-7_2
He, Q.,... Grieger, K. et al. (2023). Phytoextraction of Per- and Polyfluoroalkyl Substances (PFAS) by Weeds: Effect of Pfas Physicochemical Properties and Plant Physiological Traits. Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 454, 28 Apr. 2023, doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2023.131492. PDFPhytoextraction of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) by weeds: Effect of PFAS physicochemical properties and plant physiological traits.Khara Grieger2023Phytoextraction is a promising technology that uses plants to remediate contaminated soil. However, its feasibility for per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) and the impact of PFAS properties and plant traits on phytoextraction efficacy remains unknown. In this study, we conducted greenhouse experiment and evaluated the potential of weeds for phytoextraction of PFAS from soil and assessed the effects of PFAS properties and plant traits on PFAS uptake via systematic correlation analyses and electron probe microanalyzer with energy dispersive spectroscopy (FE-EPMA-EDS) imaging. The results showed that 1) phytoextraction can remove 0.04%− 41.4%wt of PFAS from soil, with extracted PFAS primarily stored in plant shoots; 2) Weeds preferentially extracted short-chain PFAS over long-chain homologues from soil. 3) PFAS molecular size and hydrophilicity determined plant uptake behavior, while plant morphological traits, particularly root protein and lipid content, influenced PFAS accumulation and translocation. Although plants with thin roots and small leaf areas exhibited greater PFAS uptake and storage ability, the impact of PFAS physicochemical properties was more significant. 4) Finally, short-chain PFAS were transported quickly upwards in the plant, while uptake of long-chain PFOS was restricted.Exposure to per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) is an emerging issue of concern. PFAS are a large group of chemicals that have been manufactured by people for several decades, and are now considered among the most important contaminants to address in our society. This study investigates the role of plants, specifically weeds, to uptake PFAS as a way to remove PFAS in contaminated soils. Our study explored the rates of PFAS uptake by weeds and also investigated the rate of uptake based on different types of PFAS. It sheds light on the use of phytoremediation to remove PFAS in contaminated soils.PFAS, Phytoextraction, Environmental Remediation, Emerging Contaminantshttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2023.13149210.1016/j.jhazmat.2023.131492
Baltzegar, J., Jones, M. S., Willcox, M., Ramsey, J. M., & Gould, F. (2023). Population genetic structure of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, in southern Mexico. PLOS ONE, 18(4), e0264469. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0264469. PDFPopulation genetic structure of the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, in southern MexicoJennifer Baltzegar, Michael S. Jones, Fred Gould2023The maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais, is a ubiquitous pest of maize and other cereal crops worldwide and remains a threat to food security in subsistence communities. Few population genetic studies have been conducted on the maize weevil, but those that exist have shown that there is very little genetic differentiation between geographically dispersed populations and that it is likely the species has experienced a recent range expansion within the last few hundred years. While the previous studies found little genetic structure, they relied primarily on mitochondrial and nuclear microsatellite markers for their analyses. It is possible that more fine-scaled population genetic structure exists due to local adaptation, the biological limits of natural species dispersal, and the isolated nature of subsistence farming communities. In contrast to previous studies, here, we utilized genome-wide single nucleotide polymorphism data to evaluate the genetic population structure of the maize weevil from the southern and coastal Mexican states of Oaxaca and Chiapas. We employed strict SNP filtering to manage large next generation sequencing lane effects and this study is the first to find fine-scale genetic population structure in the maize weevil. Here, we show that although there continues to be gene flow between populations of maize weevil, that fine-scale genetic structure exists. It is possible that this structure is shaped by local adaptation of the insects, the movement and trade of maize by humans in the region, geographic barriers to gene flow, or a combination of these factors.This work was supported by the National Science Foundation – IGERT 1068676 (https://www.nsf.gov/)(FG) and the Genetic Engineering and Society Center, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, NC. (https://research.ncsu.edu/ges) (JB & MJ)Weevils, Maize, Population genetics, Cereal crops, Single nucleotide polymorphisms, Mexico, Genetics, Gene flowhttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.026446910.1371/journal.pone.0264469

Assessing the Impacts of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystem Functioning: Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Uptake in Forest and Hyper-Eutrophic Stream

Gao, J., …, Grieger, K. 2022. Assessing the Impacts of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystem Functioning: Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Uptake in Forest and Hyper-Eutrophic Stream. Ecological Indicators, 138: 108859. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108859. PDF
Assessing the Impacts of Urbanization on Stream Ecosystem Functioning: Litter Decomposition and Nutrient Uptake in Forest and Hyper-Eutrophic StreamKhara Grieger2023Rapid urbanization significantly affects freshwater systems by interfering with important ecological functions. The responses of different ecosystem functions in urban streams and their potential ecological effects remain largely unknown, impeding their management and restoration in many cases. In this study, we simultaneously assessed two important ecosystem functions, litter decomposition and nutrient uptake, and investigated the associated microbial and benthic macroinvertebrate communities in two subtropical streams (i.e., a forest headwater stream as a reference and an urban stream that was hyper-eutrophic). Litter decomposition was estimated using litter bags with two mesh sizes (i.e., 50 μm and 2 mm) and two leaf species with different qualities (i.e., Alangium chinense and Machilus leptophylla), with a total of 96 litter bags. Nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) uptake rates were measured in situ based on the spiraling model. We found that the decomposition rate of A.chinense was approximately seven times that of M. leptophylla in both streams. Moreover, in the urban stream, the litter decomposition rate (0.004 day−1) was one-third that of the forest stream (0.013 day−1), regardless of the litter species. Macroinvertebrates strongly contributed to litter decomposition in the forest stream, where decomposition rates were 1.8-fold higher in the coarse mesh compared to the fine mesh bags, while they had a negligible role in the urban stream (no significant difference between the two mesh bags). P uptake was higher (85-fold) and N uptake was lower (0.13-fold) in the urban compared to forest stream. Litter decomposition and nutrient uptake exhibit decoupled response. These findings show that litter decomposition by kcoarse/kfine metrics and the uptake of N and P are complementary and should be considered in the management and restoration of urban stream ecosystems.This study examines the effects of urbanization on the functioning of stream ecosystems, specifically focusing on litter decomposition and nutrient uptake. The researchers find that urbanization significantly reduces litter decomposition rates, macroinvertebrate diversity, and nitrogen uptake, while increasing phosphorus uptake in streams. These findings provide valuable insights for the management and restoration of urban streams, highlighting the need to consider both litter decomposition and nutrient uptake in these efforts.Urbanization, Ecosystem function, Litter decomposition, Nutrient uptake, Macroinvertebrates, Microbeshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1470160X22003302?via%3Dihub10.1016/j.ecolind.2022.108859
Barnhill-Dilling, K. S., Jones, M. S., Kuzma, J., Brown, Z. S., Ambrozevicius, L., Bagley, M., & Roca, M. M. (2023). Assessment of the Regulatory and Institutional Frameworks for Agricultural Gene Editing via CRISPR-Based Technologies in Latin America and The Caribbean. Genetic Engineering and Society Center, NC State University. Retrieved from https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2023/05/IDB-Crispr_FINAL-REPORT_EN_2023.pdfFinal Report: Assessment of the Regulatory and Institutional Frameworks for Agricultural Gene Editing via CRISPR-Based Technologies in Latin America and The CaribbeanKatie Barnhill-Dilling, Michael S. Jones, Jennifer Kuzma, Patti Mulligan, Sharon Stauffer, Sebastian Zarate, Ilaria Cimadori2023This final report consolidates the following individual policy briefs and discussion documents:
  1. Regional Regulatory Overview (Kuzma and Kuiken, July 2021)
  2. CRISPR Patent and Licensing Policy (Bagley, July 2021)
  3. Stakeholder Interviews (Zarate, Cimadori, Roca, Jones and Barnhill-Dilling, January 2023)
  4. Case Study: Gene-Edited Sugarcane: Brazil and Bolivia (Ambrozevicius, Jones and Bagley, March 2023)
  5. Case Study: Gene-Edited, Disease-resistant Banana in Honduras and Guatemala (Jones and Roca, with contributing author José Falck, March 2023)
  6. Conclusion and Summary of Investment Need Findings (Jones and Roca, March 2023)
This comprehensive report evaluates the regulatory frameworks and institutional competencies for CRISPR-based gene editing in Latin America and the Caribbean. It explores diverse aspects such as policy and regulatory regimes, intellectual property, and case studies on gene-edited crops in specific countries. It also summarizes stakeholder interviews and concludes with investment recommendations for IDB, providing significant insights for future gene-editing endeavors in the region.Gene-editing, CRISPR, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), Latin America, LAC Region, Regulation, Intellectual Property, Stakeholder Engagement, Governance, Case Study, Sugarcane, Bananashttps://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2023/05/IDB-Crispr_FINAL-REPORT_EN_2023.pdf0
Barnhill-Dilling, K. S., Jones, M. S., Kuzma, J., Brown, Z. S., Ambrozevicius, L., Bagley, M., & Roca, M. M. (2023). Evaluación del Marco Regulatorio e Institucional para la Edición Génica Agrícola mediante Tecnologías Basadas en CRISPR en América Latina y el Caribe. Genetic Engineering and Society Center, NC State University. Retrieved from https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2023/05/IDB-Crispr_FINAL-REPORT_ES_2023.pdfReporte final; español: Evaluación del Marco Regulatorio e Institucional para la Edición Génica Agrícola mediante Tecnologías Basadas en CRISPR en América Latina y el CaribeKatie Barnhill-Dilling, Michael S. Jones, Jennifer Kuzma, Patti Mulligan, Sharon Stauffer, Sebastian Zarate, Ilaria Cimadori2023Este reporte final consolida los siguientes informes de políticas individuales y documentos de discusión:
  1. Resumen Del Marco Regulatorio Regional (Kuzma y Kuiken, Julio 2021)
  2. Politicas de Patentes y Licencias CRISPR (Bagley, Julio 2021)
  3. Entrevistas con Stakeholders (Zarate, Cimadori, Roca, Jones y Barnhill-Dilling, Enero 2023)
  4. Estudio de Caso: Caña de Azúcar Editada Genéticamente: Brasil y Bolivia (Ambrozevicius, Jones y Bagley, Marzo 2023)
  5. Estudio de Caso: El Banano Editado Por Edición Génica en Honduras Y Guatemala (Jones y Roca, con autor colaborador José Falck, Marzo 2023)
  6. Conclusión y Resumen de Inversiones Necesarias (Jones y Roca, Marzo 2023)
Este completo informe evalúa los marcos regulatorios y las competencias institucionales para la edición de genes basada en CRISPR en América Latina y el Caribe. Explora diversos aspectos, como políticas y regímenes regulatorios, propiedad intelectual y estudios de casos sobre cultivos modificados genéticamente en países específicos. También resume las entrevistas con las partes interesadas y concluye con recomendaciones de inversión para el BID, lo que brinda información importante para futuros esfuerzos de edición de genes en la región.Gene-editing, CRISPR, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), Latin America, LAC Region, Regulation, Intellectual Property, Stakeholder Engagement, Governance, Case Study, Sugarcane, Bananashttps://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2023/05/IDB-Crispr_FINAL-REPORT_ES_2023.pdf0
Barnhill-Dilling, K. S., Jones, M. S., Kuzma, J., Brown, Z. S., Ambrozevicius, L., Bagley, M., & Roca, M. M. (2023). Relatório final; portugués: Avaliação do Marco Regulatório e Institucional das Tecnologias de Edição Gênica Usando CRISPR no Setor Agrícola na América Latina e no Caribe. Genetic Engineering and Society Center, NC State University. Retrieved from https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2023/08/IDB-Crispr_PT_FINAL-REPORT.pdfRelatório final; portugués: Avaliação do Marco Regulatório e Institucional das Tecnologias de Edição Gênica Usando CRISPR no Setor Agrícola na América Latina e no CaribeKatie Barnhill-Dilling, Michael S. Jones, Jennifer Kuzma, Patti Mulligan, Sharon Stauffer, Sebastian Zarate, Ilaria Cimadori2023Este relatório final consolida os seguintes relatórios de política individuais e documentos de discussão:
  1. Panorama regulatório regional (Kuzma e Kuiken, julho 2021)
  2. Patente CRISPR e política de licenciamento (Bagley, julho 2021)
  3. Entrevistas com stakeholders (Zarate, Cimadori, Roca, Jones e Barnhill-Dilling, janeiro 2023)
  4. Estudo de caso: Cana-de-açúcar com edição gênica: Brasil e Bolívia (Ambrozevicius, Jones e Bagley, março 2023)
  5. Estudo de caso: Edição gênica em banana com resistência em Honduras e na Guatemala (Jones e Roca, con autor colaborador José Falck, março 2023)
  6. Conclusão e resumo das descobertas sobre a necessidade de investimento (Jones e Roca, março 2023)
Este relatório abrangente avalia as estruturas regulatórias e as competências institucionais para a edição genética baseada em CRISPR na América Latina e no Caribe. Ele explora diversos aspectos, como regimes políticos e regulatórios, propriedade intelectual e estudos de caso sobre cultivos geneticamente modificados em países específicos. Ele também resume as entrevistas com as partes interessadas e conclui com recomendações de investimento para o BID, fornecendo informações importantes para futuros empreendimentos de edição de genes na região.Gene-editing, CRISPR, Inter-American Development Bank (IDB), Latin America, LAC Region, Regulation, Intellectual Property, Stakeholder Engagement, Governance, Case Study, Sugarcane, Bananashttps://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2023/08/IDB-Crispr_PT_FINAL-REPORT.pdf0
Dillon, M. N., Thomas, R., Mousseau, T. A., Betz, J. A., Kleiman, N. J., Reiskind, M. O. B., & Breen, M. (2023). Population dynamics and genome-wide selection scan for dogs in Chernobyl. Canine Medicine and Genetics, 10(1), 1-14. doi: 10.1186/s40575-023-00124-1. PDFPopulation dynamics and genome-wide selection scan for dogs in ChernobylMartha Burford Reiskind2023Wildlife populations can be greatly affected by disasters, whether they are natural or man-made. Disasters that result in contamination or habitat destruction can result in population declines or influence wildlife adaptation to these adverse environmental changes. The Chernobyl nuclear power plant disaster released an enormous quantity of ionizing radiation into the surrounding environment. Abandonment of military and industrial facilities, as well as subsequent cleanup and remediation efforts, resulted in further environmental contamination by a variety of non-radioactive toxic metals, chemicals, and compounds. Earlier studies investigated local wildlife responses to some of these exposures. In this study, we address the impact of this disaster on the population structure of free-breeding dogs that live around the power plant and in the nearby city of Chernobyl. In particular, we use genetic approaches to understand how these two populations of dogs interact and their breed composition, so that we may begin to understand how these populations have adapted to over 30 years of exposure to this harsh environment. In this foundational study we determined that while the two local populations of dogs are separated by only 16 km, they have very low rates of interpopulation migration. We also detected genetic evidence that suggests that these population may have adapted to exposures faced over many generations. In future studies, we aim to determine if the genetic variation detected is indeed a biological response to enable survival after multi-generational exposures to radiation, heavy metals, organic toxins, or other environmental contaminants. In this way, we then understand how the impact of environmental catastrophes such as the Chernobyl nuclear disaster can influence animal populations.The study explores the genetics of two separate dog populations living in areas affected by the Chernobyl nuclear disaster. Despite living close together, the dogs show significant genetic differences, suggesting they've adapted separately to the challenging environment over many generations. This research provides new insights into how animals can adapt to extreme conditions.Outlier analysis, Population structure, Environmental contamination, Chernobyl dogshttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s40575-023-00124-110.1186/s40575-023-00124-1
Lindberg S., Peters D., and Cummings C. (2023) Gene-Edited Food Adoption Intentions and Institutional Trust in the United States: Benefits, Acceptance, and Labeling. Rural Sociology. doi: 10.1111/ruso.12480. PDFGene-Edited Food Adoption Intentions and Institutional Trust in the United States: Benefits, Acceptance, and LabelingChristopher L. Cummings2023New gene editing techniques, such as CRISPR-Cas9, have created the potential for rapid development of new gene-edited food (GEF) products. Unlike genetically modified organism foods, there is limited research and literature on U.S. public opinions about GEFs. We address this knowledge gap by examining how crop-based GEF adoption is linked to public trust in institutions and values using the Theory of Planned Behavior. We employ ordinal regression models to predict adoption intentions (direct benefits, acceptability, willingness to eat, and labeling) using a unique and nationally representative survey of n = 2,000 adults in the United States. We find that adoption hinges on public trust in institutions overseeing GEF development, especially trust in university scientists. The 29 percent of Americans likely to adopt GEFs highly trust government food regulators and the biotech industry. A nearly equal number of likely non-adopters distrust current regulatory systems in favor of consumer and environmental advocacy groups. However, most Americans (41 percent) are uncertain about GEF adoption and whom to trust. Although 75 percent of Americans want GEFs labeled, few trust government agencies who have authority to issue labels. Our findings suggest public trust in GEFs and labels can only be obtained by tripartite oversight by universities, advocacy groups, and government food regulators.This study found that public acceptance of gene-edited food (GEF) in the U.S. is strongly tied to trust in institutions overseeing its development, with particular emphasis on trust in university scientists. While 29% of Americans trust government food regulators and the biotech industry and are likely to adopt GEFs, an equal number distrust these entities, and most Americans (41%) are uncertain, indicating a need for oversight by a combination of universities, advocacy groups, and government food regulators to increase public trust and GEF adoption.Gene-Edited Food, Trust, Labelling, CRISPRhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ruso.1248010.1111/ruso.12480
Deviney A., Grieger K., Merck A., Classen J., Marshall A.M. (2023), Phosphorus sustainability through coordinated stakeholder engagement: a perspective. Environment Systems and Decisions. doi: 10.1007/s10669-023-09896-0. PDFPhosphorus sustainability through coordinated stakeholder engagement: a perspectiveKhara Grieger, Ashton Merck, John Classen2023In this Perspective we take an in-depth look at what coordinated stakeholder engagement could entail for phosphorus sustainability. The element phosphorus is critical to life on Earth and to the continued functioning of society as we know it. Yet, how society uses phosphorus is currently unsustainable, both as a resource in support of global food production where inequitable distribution creates food security challenges, but also from an environmental aspect, where mismanagement has led to negative impacts on the quality of agricultural soils, human health, and freshwater and marine ecosystems. A number of initiatives and cross-sector consortia have come together to address sustainable phosphorus management at either global or regional scales. However, these efforts could benefit from a more coordinated approach to stakeholder engagement to identify the diversity of needs and perspectives involved in this complex challenge. Herein we examine some examples of different approaches to developing such coordinated stakeholder engagement in other areas of environmental sustainability. We consider how to apply the lessons learned from those efforts toward stakeholder coordination in the realm of phosphorus sustainability. Particularly, we discuss the value of a coordinating body to manage the communications and knowledge sharing necessary to develop trust and cooperation among diverse stakeholder groups and to transition society to more sustainable phosphorus use.Stakeholder, Phosphorus, Sustainabilityhttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10669-023-09896-010.1007/s10669-023-09896-0
Hartley, S., Stelmach, A., Delborne, J.A., Barnhill-Dilling, S.K. (2023), Moving beyond narrow definitions of gene drive: Diverse perspectives and frames enable substantive dialogue among science and humanities teachers in the United States and United Kingdom. Public Understanding of Science. doi: 10.1177/09636625221148697. PDFMoving beyond narrow definitions of gene drive: Diverse perspectives and frames enable substantive dialogue among science and humanities teachers in the United States and United KingdomJason Delborne, Katie Barnhill-Dilling2023Gene drive is an emerging biotechnology with applications in global health, conservation and agriculture. Scientists are preparing for field trials, triggering debate about when and how to release gene-drive organisms. These decisions depend on public understandings of gene drive, which are shaped by language. While some studies on gene drive communication assume the need to persuade publics of expert definitions of gene drive, we highlight the importance of meaning-making in communication and engagement. We conducted focus groups with humanities and science teachers in the United Kingdom and United States to explore how different media framings stimulated discussions of gene drive. We found diversity in the value of these framings for public debate. Interestingly, the definition favoured by gene drive scientists was the least popular among participants. Rather than carefully curating language, we need opportunities for publics to make sense and negotiate the meanings of a technology on their own terms.Gene Drive, Communication, Engagementhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0963662522114869710.1177/09636625221148697
Pezzini D., Delborne J.A., and Reisig D. (2023), How can policymakers and researchers develop effective insect resistance management guidelines? A quantitative and qualitative study of Brazilian farmers' perspectives and attitudes. Plants People Planet. doi: 10.1002/ppp3.10352. PDFHow can policymakers and researchers develop effective insect resistance management guidelines? A quantitative and qualitative study of Brazilian farmers' perspectives and attitudesDaniela Pezzini, Jason Delborne, Dominic Reisig2023Genetically engineered crops expressing insecticidal proteins produced by Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) have brought numerous benefits; however, pest resistance evolution poses a threat to the sustainability of this technology. Insect resistance management (IRM) for Bt crops has been defined as a wicked problem as it involves sociobiological complexities. A main challenge in IRM is the adoption of non-Bt refuge, which is one out of the few strategies amenable to human intervention. This study investigated farmers' perspectives on information sources and IRM practices in Brazil using quantitative and qualitative data collection. A total of 145 farmers responded to online Qualtrics surveys, and 13 farmers participated in person to open-ended interviews. This study demonstrates that farmers rely on strong social networks for information exchange and that sources with expertise based on local field experience are the most reliable channels of communication. We identified new challenges for refuge adoption such as the need to spray insecticides for pests not targeted by Bt and the intangible aspect of resistance evolution. Based on results of sources of information and perspectives on IRM practices, we discuss strategies that may be successful in delaying insecticide resistance evolution based on local contexts. This is the first study to investigate Brazilian farmers' perceptions on information sources and IRM strategies using qualitative data. Our results provide important elements to orient research development and decision-making in biotechnology policies for the agricultural sector in Brazil and other similar contexts.B. Thuringiensis, Farmers' Decision-Making, Refuge Adoption, Sources Of Information, Technologyadoption, Transgenic Cropshttps://nph.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ppp3.1035210.1002/ppp3.10352
Trump B, Cummings C, Klasa K, Galaitsi S, and Linkov I (2023), Governing biotechnology to provide safety and security and address ethical, legal, and social implications. Front. Genet. 13:1052371. doi: 10.3389/fgene.2022.1052371. PDFGoverning biotechnology to provide safety and security and address ethical, legal, and social implicationsChristopher L. Cummings2023The field of biotechnology has produced a wide variety of materials and products which are rapidly entering the commercial marketplace. While many developments promise revolutionary benefits, some of them pose uncertain or largely untested risks and may spur debate, consternation, and outrage from individuals and groups who may be affected by their development and use. In this paper we show that the success of any advanced genetic development and usage requires that the creators establish technical soundness, ensure safety and security, and transparently represent the product’s ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI). We further identify how failures to address ELSI can manifest as significant roadblocks to product acceptance and adoption and advocate for use of the “safety-by-design” governance philosophy. This approach requires addressing risk and ELSI needs early and often in the technology development process to support innovation while providing security and safety for workers, the public, and the broader environment. This paper identifies and evaluates major ELSI challenges and perspectives to suggest a methodology for implementing safety-by-design in a manner consistent with local institutions and politics. We anticipate the need for safety-by-design approach to grow and permeate biotechnology governance structures as the field expands in scientific and technological complexity, increases in public attention and prominence, and further impacts human health and the environment.Biotechnology, ELSI, Policy, Governance, Safety-By-Design, Synthetic Biologyhttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fgene.2022.1052371/full10.3389/fgene.2022.1052371/full
Kuzma, J. (2023). Social Concerns and Regulation of Cisgenic Crops in North America. In: Chaurasia, A., Kole, C. (eds) Cisgenic Crops: Safety, Legal and Social Issues. Concepts and Strategies in Plant Sciences. Springer, Cham. doi: 10.1007/978-3-031-10721-4_8Social Concerns and Regulation of Cisgenic Crops in North AmericaJennifer Kuzma2023Cisgenic crops may be more acceptable to some consumer groups and can provide benefits to health, the environment, consumers, and agricultural producers. However careful attention to the societal dimensions of cisgenic and gene-edited crops will be required to ensure their success in the marketplace and safe and sustainable use. This chapter overviews several of the social concerns associated with cisgenic crops, including from the perspectives of developers and consumers and with particular attention to oversight systems in the United States and Canada. An appropriate balance between allowing innovation systems to flourish and respecting the desire of consumers for autonomy and choice is a challenge for cisgenic crop oversight. Models for responsible governance are reviewed in closing that might help to achieve such a balance and should be explored and tested in the future.Responsible Research And Innovation, Genome Editing, Gene Editing, Oversight, Policyhttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-031-10721-4_810.1007/978-3-031-10721-4_8
Gunning CE,... Gould F, Lloyd AL, et al. (2022) A critical assessment of the detailed Aedes aegypti simulation model Skeeter Buster 2 using field experiments of indoor insecticidal control in Iquitos, Peru. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases 16(12): e0010863. doi: 10.1371/journal.pntd.0010863. PDFA critical assessment of the detailed Aedes aegypti simulation model Skeeter Buster 2 using field experiments of indoor insecticidal control in Iquitos, PeruFred Gould, Alun Lloyd2023The importance of mosquitoes in human pathogen transmission has motivated major research efforts into mosquito biology in pursuit of more effective vector control measures. Aedes aegypti is a particular concern in tropical urban areas, where it is the primary vector of numerous flaviviruses, including the yellow fever, Zika, and dengue viruses. With an anthropophilic habit, Ae. aegypti prefers houses, human blood meals, and ovipositioning in water-filled containers. We hypothesized that this relatively simple ecological niche should allow us to predict the impacts of insecticidal control measures on mosquito populations. To do this, we use Skeeter Buster 2 (SB2), a stochastic, spatially explicit, mechanistic model of Ae. aegypti population biology. SB2 builds on Skeeter Buster, which reproduced equilibrium dynamics of Ae. aegypti in Iquitos, Peru. Our goal was to validate SB2 by predicting the response of mosquito populations to perturbations by indoor insecticidal spraying and widespread destructive insect surveys.To evaluate SB2, we conducted two field experiments in Iquitos, Peru: a smaller pilot study in 2013 (S-2013) followed by a larger experiment in 2014 (L-2014). Here, we compare model predictions with (previously reported) empirical results from these experiments. In both simulated and empirical populations, repeated spraying yielded substantial yet temporary reductions in adult densities. The proportional effects of spraying were broadly comparable between simulated and empirical results, but we found noteworthy differences. In particular, SB2 consistently over-estimated the proportion of nulliparous females and the proportion of containers holding immature mosquitoes. We also observed less temporal variation in simulated surveys of adult abundance relative to corresponding empirical observations. Our results indicate the presence of ecological heterogeneities or sampling processes not effectively represented by SB2. Although additional empirical research could further improve the accuracy and precision of SB2, our results underscore the importance of non-linear dynamics in the response of Ae. aegypti populations to perturbations, and suggest general limits to the fine-grained predictability of its population dynamics over space and time.We are using archived samples of Ae. aegypti collected in Iquitos, Peru since 2000 to assess patterns of spatial and temporal change in genes associated with pyrethroid resistance and in genomic differentiation. We are using this information to develop predictions about future dynamics of insecticide resistance and gene drives by use of a spatially explicit, stochastic model of Ae. aegypti population dynamics and genetics that is specifically calibrated to Iquitos conditions. The outcomes of this work will provide research, regulatory, and management communities with information needed to more accurately predict the dynamics of a variety of gene drive strategies as well as the spread of resistance to insecticides in this arbovirus vector.Overall, we found that the effects of spraying were broadly comparable between simulated and empirical results, including rapid post-control recovery. Notably, we observed less temporal variation in simulated adult abundance than in empirical observations. Our results indicate the presence of ecological heterogeneities and/or sampling processes not captured by SB2, and suggest limits to the fine-grained predictability of Ae. aegypti population dynamics over space and time.Larvae, Aedes Aegypti, Population Dynamics, Mosquitoes, Peru, Insects, Simulation And Modelinghttps://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.001086310.1371/journal.pntd.0010863
Resnik, D.B., Medina, R.F., Gould, F., Church, G. & Kuzma, J. (2022): Gene drive organisms and slippery slopes. Pathogens and Global Health, DOI: 10.1080/20477724.2022.2160895. PDF (requires login with Unity ID)Gene drive organisms and slippery slopesFred Gould, Jennifer Kuzma2022The bioethical debate about using gene drives to alter or eradicate wild populations has focused mostly on issues concerning short-term risk assessment and management, governance and oversight, and public and community engagement, but has not examined big-picture— ‘where is this going?’—questions in great depth. In other areas of bioethical controversy, big-picture questions often enter the public forum via slippery slope arguments. Given the incredible potential of gene drive organisms to alter the Earth’s biota, it is somewhat surprising that slippery slope arguments have not played a more prominent role in ethical and policy debates about these emerging technologies. In this article, we examine a type of slippery slope argument against using gene drives to alter or suppress wild pest populations and consider whether it has a role to play in ethical and policy debates. Although we conclude that this argument does not provide compelling reasons for banning the use of gene drives in wild pest populations, we believe that it still has value as a morally instructive cautionary narrative that can motivate scientists, ethicists, and members of the public to think more clearly about appropriate vs. inappropriate uses of gene drive technologies, the long-term and cumulative and emergent risks of using gene drives in wild populations, and steps that can be taken to manage these risks, such as protecting wilderness areas where people can enjoy life forms that have not been genetically engineered.Gene Drive, CRISPR, Slippery Slope Argument, Ethics, Regulationhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/20477724.2022.216089510.1080/20477724.2022.2160895
Kuzma, J. (2022). Gene drives: Environmental impacts, sustainability, and governance. EPFL International Risk Governance Center (IRGC). All workshop papers available at epfl.ch/research/domains/irgc/eset/. PDFGene drives: Environmental impacts, sustainability, and governanceJennifer Kuzma2022This paper, produced in the context of EPFL International Risk Governance Center’s (IRGC) project on ensuring the environmental sustainability of emerging technology outcome, overviews gene drive organisms (GDOs), their potential impacts on sustainability and the environment, and special considerations for risk governance. GDOs are designed to spread their genes throughout a population in an ecosystem. Newer GDOs utilize gene editing technologies like CRISPR to bias inheritance of genes with each generation towards 100%. Gene drives can be designed to cause the population to decline (e.g., via female killing) or be beneficial to the population (e.g., via genes that immunize against a disease). Theoretically, the release of just a few organisms could change populations in ecosystems permanently. However,gene drive systems are also being developed and designed to be limited in geography or spread, or to be reversible. GDOs hold promise for controllingagricultural pests with fewer pesticides, protecting endangered and threatened species against pests and ecological hazards, and reducing thetransmission of human and animal diseases. However, their open release presents characteristics of emerging risks that are accompanied by significant complexity, uncertainty and ambiguity. It is difficult to predict the risks of ecological release of GDOs prior to open release, and open release could cause widespread ecological impacts through complicated and sensitive ecosystems. This situation presents significant challenges for risk assessment, mitigation, management and international governance of GDOs. Given the near impossibility of amassing risk-relevant data prior to release, GDOs make the procedural validity of risk analysis and decision-making even more important in comparison to many other technologies and risks. More robust risk analysis methods and global governance systems are needed to ensure their safe, sustainable and equitable use.Gene Drive, Risk Governance, Ecosystems, Sustainability, Equitable Usehttps://www.epfl.ch/research/domains/irgc/wp-content/uploads/2022/12/IRGC-2022-Gene-drives_Environmental-impacts-sustainability-and-governance.pdf0
United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization. 2022. Coauthors: Gao C., Kilkulwe E., Kuzma J., et al., Gene editing and agrifood systems. Rome. doi: 10.4060/cc3579enPDFGene editing and agrifood systemsJennifer Kuzma2022Gene-editing technologies represent a promising new tool for plant and animal breeding in low- and middle-income countries. They enhance precision and efficiency over current breeding methods and could lead to rapid development of improved plant varieties and animal breeds. However, as for any new technology, they have their merits and demerits. There is, as yet, no international consensus regarding if and how gene-edited organisms should be regulated, and whether their release would fall under the regulatory framework of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity. This science- and evidence-based Issue Paper on gene editing and agrifood systems presents a balanced discussion of the most pertinent aspects of gene editing, including the consequences for human hunger, human health, food safety, effects on the environment, animal welfare, socioeconomic impact and distribution of benefits. Intrinsic ethical concerns and issues of governance and regulation are addressed, and the roles of the public and private sectors, alone and in partnership, are summarized. Various scenarios are also presented for how gene editing might be used in the future to help transform agrifood systems.The UNFAO's paper explores gene-editing technologies for plant and animal breeding, focusing on potential benefits for low- and middle-income countries. The paper underlines the need for global consensus on regulation, given the Cartagena Protocol's potential implications. It covers impacts on hunger, health, food safety, environment, and socioeconomic issues while addressing ethical and governance aspects.Genes, Agrifood Systems, Breeding Methods, Plant Breeding, Animal Breeding, Gene Editing, Partnershipshttps://www.fao.org/documents/card/en/c/cc3579en"_blank">Gene editing and agrifood systems10.4060/cc3579en
Ahmad J, Baltzegar J, Brown ZS, Delborne JA, Dhole S, Elsensohn J, Gould F, Grieger K, Hardwick A, Kuzma J, Lorenzen M, Loschin N, Medina R, Mostert B, Mulligan P, Pepin K, Spangle D, Stauffer S, Stokes R, Wei W, and Barnhill-Dilling SK. (2022) Gene Drives in Agriculture: Risk Assessment and Research Prioritization. Genetic Engineering and Society Center, NC State University Online at: go.ncsu.edu/ges-gene-drive-workshop-white-paperGene Drives in Agriculture: Risk Assessment and Research PrioritizationJabeen Ahmad, Jennifer Baltzegar, Zack Brown, Jason Delborne, Sumit Dhole, Fred Gould, Khara Grieger, Andrew Hardwick, Jennifer Kuzma, Marce Lorenzen, Nick Loschin, Bethany Mosert, Patti Mulligan, Sharon Stauffer, Dylan Spangle, Willy Wei, Katie Barnhill-Dilling2022The Genetic Engineering and Society (GES) Center at North Carolina State University (NC State) hosted an online workshop entitled “Gene Drives in Agriculture: Workshop on Risk Assessment and Research Prioritization” on June 2, 3, and 17, 2022. The workshop was funded by the USDA-NIFA Biotechnology Risk Assessment Grant program (grant number 2020-33522-32269; PI = Barnhill-Dilling), with additional support from and partnership with the NC State Center for Excellence in Regulatory Science for Agriculture (CERSA). The workshop included an interdisciplinary lineup of speakers brought together in an effort to review and develop risk assessment methodology associated with gene drives for agriculture pest control. This report was generated to inform and summarize foreseen risks associated with gene drive technology for agriculture pest control to identify data needs for gene drive technology. The workshop featured panelist experts in multiple disciplines specializing in gene drives, risk assessment, policy, and agricultural pests. By use of presentations and breakout sessions, many ideas were presented regarding the risk assessment and risk governance of gene drives in agriculture. This workshop report does not represent the opinion of all the participants in the workshop but serves as a bridge to cover multiple perspectives from interdisciplinary efforts.A comprehensive examination of the application, risks, and regulatory aspects of gene drives for agricultural pest control. Written by attendees of our June 2022 workshop, it underscores the potential of gene drives while acknowledging significant gaps in governance systems and risk assessment data. Key concerns include effectiveness, ecological impacts, and human health effects, and calls for ongoing stakeholder dialogues and integration of social science data into gene drive models.Gene Drive, Agricultural Biotechnology, Risk Assessment, USDA, NIFA, Workshop Reporthttps://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2022/11/Gene-Drives-in-Agriculture-Workshop-on-Risk-Assessment-and-Research-Prioritization-2022.pdf0
Taitingfong, R.I.,... Gould, F., Delborne, J., Kuzma, J., Kuiken, T.,... et al. (2022) Exploring the value of a global gene drive project registry. Nat Biotechnol. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-022-01591-w. PDFExploring the value of a global gene drive project registryFred Gould, Jennifer Kuzma, Jason Delborne, Todd Kuiken2022Recent calls to establish a global project registry before releasing any gene-drive-modified organisms (GDOs) have suggested a registry could be valuable to coordinate research, collect data to monitor and evaluate potential ecological impacts, and facilitate transparent communication with community stakeholders and the general public. Here, we report the results of a multidisciplinary expert workshop on GDO registries convened on 8–9 December 2020 involving 70 participants from 14 countries. Participants had expertise in gene drive design, conservation and population modeling, social science, stakeholder engagement, governance and regulation, international policy, and vector control; they represented 45 organizations, spanning national and local governmental agencies, international organizations, nonprofit organizations, universities, and district offices overseeing local vector control. The workshop aimed to gather perspectives on a central question: “In what ways could a gene-drive project registry both contribute to and detract from the fair development, testing and use of GDOs?” We specifically queried the perceived purpose of a registry, the information that would need to be included, and the perceived value of a registry. Three primary findings emerged from the discussion: first, many participants agreed a registry could serve a coordinating function for multidisciplinary and multisector work activities; second, doing so may require different design elements, depending on the target end-user group and intended purpose for that group; and third, these different information requirements lead to concerns about information sharing via a registry, suggesting potential obstacles to achieving transparency through such a mechanism. We conclude that any development of a gene-drive project registry requires careful and inclusive deliberation, including with potential end-users, to ensure that registry design is optimal.Gene Drive, Conservation, Population Modeling, Stakeholder Engagement, Governance , International Policy, Vector Controlhttps://doi.org/10.1038/s41587-022-01591-w10.1038/s41587-022-01591-w
Horgan, M.D., Hsain, H.A., Jones, J.L. Grieger, K.D. (2023) Development and application of screening-level risk analysis for emerging materials, Sustainable Materials and Technologies, 35. Graphical abstract (Figure 4)Development and application of screening-level risk analysis for emerging materialsKhara Grieger2022Analysis of a material's impact on society is increasingly recognized as a necessary step in materials development, especially in the area of lead-free piezoelectrics. Evaluations of the environmental, health, and societal impacts that occur throughout the material's life cycle are critical for determining the viability of lead-free alternatives. Risk screening approaches, such as the screening-level Emerging Materials Risk Analysis (EMRA) proposed in this work, may help researchers compare materials or material production routes to determine more sustainable solutions. As a first demonstration of its utility in the development of lead-free piezoelectrics, the approach introduced in this paper is applied to piezoelectric HfO2 (hafnia) to compare mining and processing routes and to elucidate the more sustainable route for HfO2 production. This paper aims to exemplify how the EMRA risk screening approach incorporates perspectives on environmental, health, and societal impacts into the materials research process by providing a relative risk screening evaluation of different material processing routes and/or different materials. Results from applying EMRA to hafnia show that the major known environmental impacts of hafnia mining and processing involve ecosystem destruction and heavy use of fossil fuels and electricity; health impacts related to potentially unsafe working conditions and potential exposure to radioactive elements; and societal impacts including land disputes and supply concerns. Results also demonstrate that the more sustainable production route currently available includes commercial wet mining with land rehabilitation followed by beneficiation via wet processes with consistent personal protective equipment use and water recycling. Almost all of the previously-mentioned impacts are avoided in this life cycle route. Outcomes from this analysis identify hafnia as a potentially sustainable replacement for certain applications of PZT and therefore encourage continued development of the material. Future efforts will test EMRA on a wide variety of other materials and revise the approach accordingly.Risk Screening, Life Cycle, Material Development, Hafnia, Piezoelectricshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S221499372200138510.1016/j.susmat.2022.e00524
Gierus, L... Godwin, J. et al. Leveraging a natural murine meiotic drive to suppress invasive populations. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Nov. 15 2022, 119 (46); DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2213308119. PDFLeveraging a natural murine meiotic drive to suppress invasive populationsJohn Godwin2022SignificanceInvasive rodents pose a significant threat to global biodiversity, contributing to countless extinctions, particularly on islands. Genetic biocontrol has considerable potential to control invasive populations but has not been developed in mice. Here, we develop a suppression gene drive strategy for mice that leverages a modified naturally occurring element with biased transmission to spread faulty copies of a haplosufficient female fertility gene (tCRISPR). In silico modeling of island populations using a range of realistic parameters predicts robust eradication. We also demonstrate proof of concept for this strategy in laboratory mice. This work marks a significant step toward the development of a gene drive for the suppression of invasive mice.AbstractInvasive rodents are a major cause of environmental damage and biodiversity loss, particularly on islands. Unlike insects, genetic biocontrol strategies including population-suppressing gene drives with biased inheritance have not been developed in mice. Here, we demonstrate a gene drive strategy (tCRISPR) that leverages super-Mendelian transmission of the t haplotype to spread inactivating mutations in a haplosufficient female fertility gene (Prl). Using spatially explicit individual-based in silico modeling, we show that tCRISPR can eradicate island populations under a range of realistic field-based parameter values. We also engineer transgenic tCRISPR mice that, crucially, exhibit biased transmission of the modified t haplotype and Prl mutations at levels our modeling predicts would be sufficient for eradication. This is an example of a feasible gene drive system for invasive alien rodent population control.Genetic Biocontrol, Gene Drive, Invasive Rodents, Conservation, Modelinghttps://www.pnas.org/doi/10.1073/pnas.221330811910.1073/pnas.2213308119
Macfarlane, N. B. W., Adams, J., Bennett, E. L., Brooks, T. M., Delborne, J. A., Eggermont, H., Endy, D., Esvelt, K. M., Kolodziejczyk, B., Kuiken, T. et al. (2022). Direct and indirect impacts of synthetic biology on biodiversity conservation. iScience, 25(11). doi: 10.1016/j.isci.2022.105423. PDF. Graphical abstractDirect and indirect impacts of synthetic biology on biodiversity conservationJason Delborne2022The world’s biodiversity is in crisis. Synthetic biology has the potential to transform biodiversity conservation, both directly and indirectly, in ways that are negative and positive. However, applying these biotechnology tools to environmental questions is fraught with uncertainty and could harm cultures, rights, livelihoods, and nature. Decisions about whether or not to use synthetic biology for conservation should be understood alongside the reality of ongoing biodiversity loss. In 2022, the 196 Parties to the United Nations Convention on Biological Diversity are negotiating the post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework that will guide action by governments and other stakeholders for the next decade to conserve the worlds’ biodiversity. To date, synthetic biologists, conservationists, and policy makers have operated in isolation. At this critical time, this review brings these diverse perspectives together and emerges out of the need for a balanced and inclusive examination of the potential application of these technologies to biodiversity conservation.Global Change, Environmental Management, Nature Conservation, Biotechnology, Environmental Biotechnologyhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.isci.2022.10542310.1016/j.isci.2022.105423
Thizy, D., Carter, L., Coche, I., Delborne, J. A., et al. (2022). Public Acceptability and Stakeholder Engagement for Genetic Control Technologies. Transgenic Insects, 474–492. doi: 10.1079/9781800621176.0024Public Acceptability and Stakeholder Engagement for Genetic Control TechnologiesJason Delborne2022Genetic Control, Invasive Species, Public Engagement, Stakeholders, Transgenic Insectshttps://www.cabidigitallibrary.org/doi/10.1079/9781800621176.002410.1079/9781800621176.0024
Reed, E. M., Reiskind, M. H., & Burford Reiskind, M. O. (2023). Life‐history stage and the population genetics of the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus at a fine spatial scale. Medical and Veterinary Entomology, 37(1), 132-142. doi: 10.1111/mve.12618. PDFLife‐history stage and the population genetics of the tiger mosquito Aedes albopictus at a fine spatial scale. Martha Burford Reiskind2022As a widespread vector of disease with an expanding range, the mosquito Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae) is a high priority for research and management. A. albopictus has a complex life history with aquatic egg, larval and pupal stages, and a terrestrial adult stage. This requires targeted management strategies for each life stage, coordinated across time and space. Population genetics can aid in A. albopictus control by evaluating patterns of genetic diversity and dispersal. However, how life stage impacts population genetic characteristics is unknown. We examined whether patterns of A. albopictus genetic diversity and differentiation changed with life stage at a spatial scale relevant to management efforts. We first conducted a literature review of field-caught A. albopictus population genetic papers and identified 101 peer-reviewed publications, none of which compared results between life stages. Our study uniquely examines population genomic patterns of egg and adult A. albopictus at five sites in Wake County, North Carolina, USA, using 8425 single nucleotide polymorphisms. We found that the level of genetic diversity and connectivity between sites varied between adults and eggs. This warrants further study and is critical for research aimed at informing local management.This study investigates how the genetic diversity and connectivity of the Aedes albopictus mosquito, a widespread disease vector, vary between its egg and adult life stages at a local scale in Wake County, North Carolina. The findings reveal significant differences between these stages, highlighting the need for more tailored and stage-specific strategies in managing mosquito populations. This unique research contributes to a better understanding of mosquito population dynamics, which is crucial for effective local disease control efforts.Aedes albopictus, invasive species, life stage, mosquito population geneticshttps://resjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/mve.1261810.1111/mve.12618.
Leon, R., Creamer, N., Reberg-Horton, S., & Franzluebbers, A. (2022). Eradication of Commelina benghalensis in a long-term experiment using a multistakeholder governance model: A case of regulatory concerns defeating ecological management success. Invasive Plant Science and Management, 15(3), 152-159. doi: 10.1017/inp.2022.23. PDFEradication of Commelina benghalensis in a long-term experiment using a multistakeholder governance model: A case of regulatory concerns defeating ecological management successRamon Leon2022Tropical spiderwort (Commelina benghalensis L.) is a noxious invasive species and was detected in a long-term experiment in a research farm in Goldsboro, NC. A multistakeholder governance model was used to address the invasion of this species. Regulators insisted on the use of fumigation in all fields, but after intense negotiations, a multi-tier eradication plan was designed and implemented, allowing fumigation outside the long-term experiment and a combination of integrated approaches (including physical removal) and intense monitoring and mapping for long-term experimental fields. In the long-term experiment, C. benghalensis populations decreased logarithmically from more than 50,000 plants in approximately 80 ha in 2005 to 19 plants in less than 1 ha in 2019, with a projection of full eradication by 2024. Despite these results, which were considered to be proof of successful ecological management by university researchers, regulators decided to fumigate the fields containing the remaining 19 plants. This decision was made because regulators considered factors such as professional liability and control efficacy. This created serious disagreements between the different stakeholders who participated in the design of the original plan. Despite the goodwill all parties exhibited at the beginning of the governance process, there were important shortcomings that likely contributed to the disagreements at the end. For example, the plan did not include specific milestones, and there was no clarity about what acceptable progress was based on (i.e., plant numbers or the rate of population decline). Also, no financial limits were established, which made administrators concerned about the financial burden the eradication program had become over time. Multistakeholder governance can effectively address plant invasions, but proper definition of progress and the point at which the program must be modified are critical for success, and all this must be done within a governance model that balances power in the decision-making process.Decision, Fumigation, Invasion, Mapping, Monitoring, Negotiation, Scoutinghttps://doi.org/10.1017/inp.2022.2310.1017/inp.2022.23
Merck, A. W., Grieger, K. D., and Kuzma, J.. How can we promote the responsible innovation of nano-agrifood research? Environmental Science & Policy 137, 2022. 10.1016/j.envsci.2022.08.027 PDF. Graphical AbstractHow can we promote the responsible innovation of nano-agrifood research?Ashton Merck, Khara Grieger, Jennifer Kuzma2022The use of nanotechnology and engineered nanomaterials in food and agriculture (nano-agrifoods) may provide numerous benefits to society. At the same time, there is also a chance that nano-agrifood innovations may pose new or unknown risks to human or environmental health and safety. To understand these issues and be more responsive to public concerns, researchers are beginning to discuss and adopt an emerging best practice in science and technology communities known as “responsible innovation” (RI). Originally developed by researchers over ten years ago, RI is now a well-established framework that is already a part of science policymaking in the European Union (as “responsible research and innovation”). In the United States, however, there are numerous structural and institutional barriers for scientists to align their research with RI principles and goals. This perspective briefly reviews RI, why it is needed for nano-agrifoods, and how it could be institutionalized more effectively in the U.S. to ensure that future nano-agrifood research is better aligned with societal needs, expectations, and concerns. This work also identifies several pathways to institutionalize RI in nano-agrifoods, ranging from a public legal mandate to privately enforced organizational norms. Further, a set of strategies and/or best practices for implementing RI in the U.S. context is presented that are applicable to both public and private organizations. While key findings from this work are focused on the need for RI of nano-agrifoods in the U.S., implementation of these best practices could have positive benefits for other emerging technologies and in other national contexts as well.Nanotechnology, Nano-Agrifoods, Responsible Innovation, Policyhttps://authors.elsevier.com/a/1fknS5Ce0rj~zN10.1016/j.envsci.2022.08.027
Kuzma, J. Implementing responsible research and innovation: a case study of U.S. biotechnology oversight. Global Public Policy and Governance: 1-19. (2022). doi: 10.1007/s43508-022-00046-x (Implementing responsible research and innovation: a case study of U.S. biotechnology oversightJennifer Kuzma2022This article explores two research questions through a case study of U.S. biotechnology oversight: why visions of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) are difficult to implement in governance systems for emerging technologies, and how to get policies and programs to overcome barriers to RRI implementation on the national policy agenda. Recent research on barriers to RRI is first reviewed to categorize the types of barriers. Key barriers center around meso- and macro-level institutional and societal forces that disincentivize RRI in innovation systems, as well as micro-level attitudinal and capacity barriers. These barriers point to policy changes that are likely needed to implement RRI in governance systems, in particular incentives for RRI from national funding organizations. However, getting RRI on the policy agenda for biotechnology may be difficult given macro-level socioeconomic and political forces. Therefore, the article uses insights from policy process theory to identify possible ways to get RRI on the national policy agenda. It identifies several ways to promote RRI in national policy-making, such as shifting the policy image of RRI, changing policy venues to encourage RRI, expanding the scope of RRI as a policy issue, and catalyzing focusing events to raise national awareness about RRI.Responsible Research And Innovation (RRI), Governance Systems, Emerging Technologieshttps://rdcu.be/cVFxA10.1007/s43508-022-00046-x
Fred Gould, et al. "Toward product-based regulation of crops." Science 377, 1051 (2022). DOI: 10.1126/science.abo3034 Toward product-based regulation of cropsFred Gould2022Much effort has been expended globally over the past four decades to craft and update country-specific and multinational safety regulations that can be applied to crops developed by genetic engineering processes, while exempting conventionally bred crops. This differentiation made some sense in the 1980s, but in light of technological advances, it is no longer scientifically defensible. In the coming decades, innovations in genetic engineering and modern “conventional” processes of crop development will enable use of these approaches to alter more crops and more traits. Future governance of new plant varieties and foods, regardless of the processes and techniques used to develop them, will require new, scientifically sound assessment methodologies, developed in a manner acceptable to society. Here, we provide a rationale for one governance approach that moves away from current process-based regulation and uses newly developed molecular techniques that enable detailed characterization of the new crops and foods themselves.Differentiations between crops developed conventionally vs via genetic engineering in safety regulations are outdated, as lines blur with emerging technologies like CRISPR. Current regulations focus on the size of the genetic change and its source, leading to inconsistent global rules. A shift should be made towards "omics-based" regulations, focusing on crop characteristics rather than the process used. Proposes an international, collaborative approach to governance of new crops and foods.Product-Based Regulation, CRISPR, Bioengineered Cropshttps://www.science.org/stoken/author-tokens/ST-704/full10.1126/science.abo3034
Fugurson, J., & Delborne, J. A. (2022). Considering the Case of Gene Drive Technologies through Social Science Theories on Stakeholder Engagement (Gene Drive Research Forum). GeneConvene Global Collaborative. PDFConsidering the Case of Gene Drive Technologies through Social Science Theories on Stakeholder EngagementJason Delborne, Jill Furgurson2022The Gene Drive Research Forum hosted a series of virtual panel discussions designed to provide an opportunity for social scientists, researchers and developers, funders, and other stakeholders interested in gene drive technologies to explore social science questions on stakeholder engagement. Over the course of five sessions, the panelists considered a variety of topics related to stakeholder engagement, including controversy and challenges; risk assessment; field trial site selection; the roleof consensus; and independence in funding and practices. Gene Drive, Stakeholder Engagement, Social Science, Risk Assessmenthttps://fnih.org/sites/default/files/2022-06/GDRF Stakeholders Panel.pdf0
Kuzma, J.Making Space for Technology Governance.Issues in Science and Technology 38, no. 4 (Summer 2022). Retrieved from https://issues.org/technology-governance-mathews-fabi-offodile-forum/. PDFMaking Space for Technology GovernanceJennifer Kuzma2022A discussion of Imagining Governance for Emerging TechnologiesBY DEBRA J. H. MATHEWS, RACHEL FABI, ANAEZE C. OFFODILE IIKuzma calls for better governance of emerging technologies, highlighting societal neglect of ethical implications due to technological optimism and capitalism. She suggests creating independent policy spaces, involving diverse perspectives and real decision-making authority, to ensure responsible and equitable technological futures.Responsible Innovation, Societal Impacts, Governancehttps://issues.org/technology-governance-mathews-fabi-offodile-forum/#forum-response-block_6303cfc1bcecf0
Barnhill-Dilling, K. (2022). Chestnut Restoration and Tribal Sovereignty. Wicked Problems, Wolfpack Solutions. DOI: 10.52750/174449Chestnut Restoration and Tribal SovereigntyKatie Barnhill-Dilling2022North American indigenous people once referred to the then ubiquitous American Chestnut tree as the “grandfather of the forest.” In this talk, Katie Barnhill-Dilling, Ph.D., explores the history of chestnut’s importance to native people and to European settlers and the impact on the population and ecosystem of its functional extinction. Barnhill-Dilling identifies biotechnology tools explored to genetically engineer a blight-resistant variety of the American Chestnut and the importance of considering Indigenous sovereignty in this fascinating restoration effort.An exploration of the history of chestnut’s importance to native people and to European settlers and the impact on the population and ecosystem of its functional extinction.American Chestnut Tree, Stakeholder Engagement, Forest Biotechnology, Wolpack Solutionshttps://doi.org/10.52750/17444910.52750/174449
Delborne, J. A. (2022). When Biotechnology Goes “Wild”: GE Chestnut Trees. Wicked Problems, Wolfpack Solutions. DOI: 10.52750/260237When Biotechnology Goes “Wild”: GE Chestnut TreesJason Delborne2022What does it mean when biotechnology moves from agricultural fields, dinner plates and pharmacies out into the “wild?” How do we make sense of controversies over GMOs (genetically modified organisms) when they are designed for public benefit and environmental restoration? Jason A. Delborne, Ph.D., explores the case of the genetically engineered (GE) American chestnut tree, which could be the first genetically modified organism (GMO) approved in the U.S. that is designed to spread and persist in unmanaged environments. Currently under regulatory review, the GE chestnut raises a host of ethical, political and social questions that require an interdisciplinary approach. Such complexity is what drives the research, teaching and outreach of NC State’s Genetic Engineering and Society Center.An exploration of the case of the genetically engineered (GE) American chestnut tree, which could be the first genetically modified organism (GMO) approved in the U.S. that is designed to spread and persist in unmanaged environments.American Chestnut Tree, Stakeholder Engagement, Forest Biotechnology, Wolpack Solutionshttps://doi.org/10.52750/26023710.52750/260237
Grieger, K. (2022). STEPS to Tackle Our Phosphorus Paradox. Wicked Problems, Wolfpack Solutions. DOI: 10.52750/331886STEPS to Tackle Our Phosphorus ParadoxKhara Grieger2022Phosphorus is an essential nutrient for animals, plants and microbes. The current system to manage phosphorus is extremely inefficient. One major reason relates to the loss of phosphorus from the food chain, where it can bind to soils and transfer to animal wastes and run-off, which can lead to water pollution, algal blooms, eutrophication and even fish kills. Khara Grieger, Ph.D., argues that overall, our society needs more sustainable solutions to solve our global phosphorus paradox. The Science and Technologies for Phosphorus Sustainability (STEPS) Center, led by researchers at NC State and in partnership with several other institutions, aims to facilitate these solutions through combining science, technology and innovation together with social sciences, communication and stakeholder engagement.The current system to manage phosphorus is extremely inefficient. One major reason relates to the loss of phosphorus from the food chain, where it can transfer to animal wastes and run-off, which can lead to water pollution, algal blooms, eutrophication and fish kills.STEPS, Phosphorus, Food Supply, Agriculture, Wolpack Solutionshttps://doi.org/10.52750/33188610.52750/331886
Kuzma, J. (2022). Responsible Innovation in Genetic Engineering. Wicked Problems, Wolfpack Solutions. DOI: 10.52750/542577 Responsible Innovation in Genetic EngineeringJennifer Kuzma2022As genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) become more ubiquitous in agricultural and environmental systems, it will be important for diverse publics to be informed about GEOs, where they occur in the food supply and ecosystem and what the societal impacts are likely to be. Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) is emerging as a set of principles and practices to give greater voice and choice to interested and affected publics well upstream of innovations entering the marketplace or environment. Jennifer Kuzma, Ph.D., argues for the need for embedding RRI in innovation systems for emerging biotechnologies and explores the challenges for doing so and addresses the “wicked problem” of how RRI can coexist within biotechnology oversight systems that lean towards the values of innovators, anti-precaution, and techno-optimism.As genetically engineered organisms (GEOs) become more ubiquitous in agricultural and environmental systems, it will be important for diverse publics to be informed about GEOs, where they occur in the food supply and ecosystem and what the societal impacts are likely to be.Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI), Food Supply, Agriculture, Wolpack Solutionshttps://doi.org/10.52750/54257710.52750/542577
Humphries, S., Kainer, K., Rodriguez-Ward, D., et al. (2022). “Pathways to community timber production: A comparative analysis of two well-established community-based forest enterprises in Mexico and Brazil” in Bulkan, J. Hobley, M., Larson, A. and J. Palmer, eds. Routledge Handbook on Community Forestry. DOI: 10.4324/9780367488710-7. PDFPathways to community timber production: A comparative analysis of two well-established community-based forest enterprises in Mexico and BrazilDawn Rodriguez-Ward2022In this chapter, we analyse two forest-based communities with well-established community-based forest enterprises (CFEs) for timber production: Noh-Bec, an ejido with 36 years of CFE experience in southeast Mexico; and Arimum, a community with 14 years of CFE experience in a federal extractive reserve in the Brazilian Amazon. We contrast their struggles for community rights to forests in each region and describe each CFE’s initiation and current implementation. We utilise the Community Capitals Framework to contextualise each community’s initial assets and identify the types of community forestry–related local investments made by community members and others, and examine ways in which changes in community capitals relate to three broad dimensions of these communities’ well-being. We find similarities in cultural ties to the forest, investments in social and built capital, and financial capital challenges. We find differences in sources of support as well as human and natural capital. We observe that engagement in forest management for timber production by these two communities has been an important way (but certainly not the only way) for them to harness and leverage investments in their community capitals, which, in turn, have contributed to improvements in well-being, especially material well-being in the form of income.A comparative analysis of two well-established community-based forest enterprises in Mexico and BrazilTimber, Community-based Forest Enterprises (CFEs), Community Rights, Stakeholder Engagementhttps://www.taylorfrancis.com/chapters/edit/10.4324/9780367488710-7/pathways-community-timber-production-shoana-humphries-karen-kainer-dawn-rodriguez-ward-ana-luiza-violato-espada-thomas-holmes-pascual-blanco-reyes-jones-da-silva-santos-maria-margarida-ribeiro-da-silva10.4324/9780367488710-7
Brown, Z. S. (2022). Distributional policy impacts, WTP-WTA disparities, and the Kaldor-Hicks tests in benefit-cost analysis. Journal of Environmental Economics and Management, 113, 102654. doi: 10.1016/j.jeem.2022.102654. Kuzma, J. (2022). Governance of Gene-edited Plants: Insights from the History of Biotechnology Oversight and Policy Process Theory. Science, Technology, & Human Values. doi: 10.1177/01622439221108225. PDFGovernance of Gene-edited Plants: Insights from the History of Biotechnology Oversight and Policy Process TheoryJennifer Kuzma2022The history of US biotechnology oversight for genetically modified plants is analyzed in the context of policy process theories to derive insights for contemporary governance of gene-edited plants. The Advocacy Coalition Framework sheds light on how opposing coalitions with different policy beliefs struggled to influence oversight, along with coalition disputes over the scope of issues that should be considered in regulatory policy-making. The Multiple Streams Approach and Punctuated Equilibrium Theory explain how focusing events arising from these struggles opened “windows of opportunity” to put issues on the public policy agenda and force changes to oversight over time. For example, nongovernmental organizations had a prominent role in bringing legal challenges through federal courts or in raising attention to risk issues in the media—efforts that prompted advancements in federal regulations, guidance documents, or risk-mitigation practices for biotechnology oversight. These policy dynamics depended on public information to bring controversies to light and elicit a policy response. However, recent biotech regulations allow for gene-edited crops to enter the marketplace without requirements for public disclosure or tracking. Lack of transparency jeopardizes the public legitimacy of gene-edited crops, venues for public participation in biotechnology oversight, and ultimately responsiveness to adapt oversight to future biotech products and emerging risks.The study delves into gene-editing policy, drawing on biotech history and policy theories. It uncovers how past conflicts and transformative events led to regulatory advancements. However, it raises concerns about the current lack of transparency for gene-edited crops, suggesting this could undermine public trust and hamper adaptation to future biotech products. The findings highlight the policy process's critical role in responsibly guiding gene-editing technology's evolution.Genome Editing, Policy Process Theory, Biotechnology, Regulation, Governance, GMOhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0162243922110822510.1177/01622439221108225
Grieger, K., Cummings, C.L. 2022. Informing Environmental Health and Risk Priorities through Local Outreach and Extension. Environment Systems and Decisions doi: 10.1007/s10669-022-09864-0 PDFInforming Environmental Health and Risk Priorities through Local Outreach and ExtensionKhara Grieger, Christopher L. Cummings2022Our society is currently facing an unprecedented number of environmental and societal challenges. Stakeholder and community engagement can help identify priority issues and needs at local levels. One approach to engage stakeholders and communities in the contexts of environmental, health, and societal challenges is to leverage outreach and extension programs. Within this context, and to help identify priority issues to focus subsequent research and extension programs in North Carolina (NC), a survey was conducted with extension agents to identify priority issues as they relate to environmental health and risks and related needs. Based on responses from 66 study participants that represented half of the 100 NC counties, we found that Water pollution, Flooding, Natural resources management, and Engaging stakeholders were top priority issues across all environmental health and risk topics. Participants also identified that practices of Engaging stakeholders as well as Assessing, Managing, and Communicating risks were increasingly important. Participants indicated they needed a moderate-to-significant amount of guidance across a range of areas related to assessing, managing, communicating, andmaking decisions regarding environmental health and risk topics, as well as engaging with local communities. Outcomes from this work can not only help inform subsequent research and outreach efforts at local scales, but this work demonstrates a simple, low-cost approach to elicit perspectives and priorities can be leveraged in other states and regions with established stakeholder and community outreach programs more broadlyEnvironmental Health, Risks, Priorities, North Carolina, Extensionhttps://doi.org/10.1007/s10669-022-09864-010.1007/s10669-022-09864-0
Merck, A. W., Grieger, K. D., Cuchiara, M., & Kuzma, J. (2022). What Role Does Regulation Play in Responsible Innovation of Nanotechnology in Food and Agriculture? Insights and Framings from U.S. Stakeholders. Bulletin of Science, Technology & Society. doi: 10.1177/02704676221102066. PDFWhat Role Does Regulation Play in Responsible Innovation of Nanotechnology in Food and Agriculture? Insights and Framings from U.S. StakeholdersAshton Merck, Khara Grieger, Jennifer Kuzma2022Historically, market regulation has played an important role in shaping the trajectory of scientific and technological innovation in food and agriculture. However, regulators’ traditional focus on safety and efficacy may be insufficient to address more complex ethical, legal, and social implications (ELSI) of novel products, such as the use of nanotechnology and nanomaterials in food and agriculture (nano-agrifoods). One solution might be to implement the principles of responsible innovation (RI) to challenge innovators and policymakers to better anticipate risks further upstream and be responsive to societal desires and concerns, although substantial barriers to implementation persist. This paper presents stakeholder views on the relationship between regulation and RI in nano-agrifoods based on a broader U.S. stakeholder engagement study conducted in the fall of 2020. We found that participants raised key issues that incorporated all 4 pillars of RI (anticipation, inclusion, reflexivity, responsiveness). We also found that participants’ attitudes about the relationship between regulation and innovation informed their recommendations about the relationship between regulation and RI. These attitudes are represented in a spectrum of views, ranging from “regulation as barrier” to “regulation as driver” of innovation. We further identified implications for how each attitude might be used to operationalize RI in regulatory systems. Overall, these results suggest that just as regulation drove key innovations in the twentieth century, regulation may still have a role to play in helping to promote RI of nano-agrifoods in the twenty-first.Responsible Innovation, Stakeholder Engagement, Nanotechnology, Food & Agriculture, Regulationhttps://doi.org/10.1177/0270467622110206610.1177/02704676221102066
Cummings C. and Peters D.J. Who Trusts in Gene-Edited Foods? Analysis of a Representative Survey Study Predicting Willingness to Eat- and Purposeful Avoidance of Gene Edited Foods in the United States. Front. Food. Sci. Technol. 2:858277. 01 June 2022. doi: 10.3389/frfst.2022.858277 . PDFWho Trusts in Gene-Edited Foods? Analysis of a Representative Survey Study Predicting Willingness to Eat- and Purposeful Avoidance of Gene Edited Foods in the United StatesChristopher L. Cummings2022CRISPR-Cas, ZFN, and TALEN provide gene editing opportunities which may lead to new food and agricultural products with identifiable benefits for end-use consumers. Given the public perceptions and backlash faced by previous generations of genetically modified food products, there is a lot of speculation regarding how gene edited food products will come to be understood, and if they will be accepted or avoided by society. This study provides timely and reliable data which reports representative coordinated study of the United States public as to what factors influence their willingness to eat- or purposeful avoidance of gene-edited foods. This study fills this gap to identify influential factors which, in concert, help to explain not only if members of the public trust GEF and are willing to eat GEF foods or choose to avoid them, but why they hold the trust attitudes they do. From our analysis, we find that social values, institutional trust, and awareness are the most important factors in why Americans would choose to either eat or avoid gene edited foods. Surprisingly, the public’s attitudes about the tangible characteristics of food (such as safety, cost, taste, and appearance) had no bearing on GE food perceptions. This helps explains why the American public makes little distinction between willingness to eat processed or raw foods made with GE crops.Gene Edited Food, Trust, Representative Survey, Food, Public Opinionhttps://doi.org/10.3389/frfst.2022.85827710.3389/frfst.2022.858277
George D.R., Hornstein E.D., Clower C.A., Coomber A.L., Dilliard D., Mugwanya N., Pezzini D.T., and Rozowski C. Lessons for a SECURE Future: Evaluating Diversity in Crop Biotechnology Across Regulatory Regimes. Front. Bioeng. Biotechnol., 02 May 2022. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2022.886765. PDF.Lessons for a SECURE Future: Evaluating Diversity in Crop Biotechnology Across Regulatory RegimesDalton George, Eli Hornstein, Carrie Clower, Allison Coomber, DeShae Dillard, Nassib Mugwanya, Daniela Pezzini, Casey Rozowski2022Regulation of next-generation crops in the United States under the newly implemented “SECURE” rule promises to diversify innovation in agricultural biotechnology. Specifically, SECURE promises to expand the number of products eligible for regulatory exemption, which proponents theorize will increase the variety of traits, genes, organisms, and developers involved in developing crop biotechnology. However, few data-driven studies have looked back at the history of crop biotechnology to understand how specific regulatory pathways have affected diversity in crop biotechnology and how those patterns might change over time. In this article, we draw upon 30 years of regulatory submission data to 1) understand historical diversification trends across the landscape and history of past crop biotechnology regulatory pathways and 2) forecast how the new SECURE regulations might affect future diversification trends. Our goal is to apply an empirical approach to exploring the relationship between regulation and diversity in crop biotechnology and provide a basis for future data-driven analysis of regulatory outcomes. Based on our analysis, we suggest that diversity in crop biotechnology does not follow a single trajectory dictated by the shifts in regulation, and outcomes of SECURE might be more varied and restrictive despite the revamped exemption categories. In addition, the concept of confidential business information and its relationship to past and future biotechnology regulation is reviewed in light of our analysis.Crop Biotechnology, SECURE Rule, Regulation, Diversity Trends, Innovation, United Stateshttps://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fbioe.2022.886765/full10.3389/fbioe.2022.886765
Zhi Y., Lu H., Grieger K.D., et al. Bioaccumulation and Translocation of 6:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonate, GenX, and Perfluoroalkyl Acids by Urban Spontaneous Plants. ACS ES&T Engineering Article. April 18, 2022. DOI: 10.1021/acsestengg.1c00423. PDFBioaccumulation and Translocation of 6:2 Fluorotelomer Sulfonate, GenX, and Perfluoroalkyl Acids by Urban Spontaneous PlantsKhara Grieger2022There is limited information available regarding the bioaccumulation potential of polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) in urban vegetation. Using a controlled greenhouse exposure setting, we investigated the bioaccumulation and translocation of select PFAS in four common urban spontaneous plants. Target compounds included legacy PFAS (perfluoroalkyl carboxylic and sulfonic acids, PFCA/PFSA), a fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTS), and an emerging fluorinated ether (i.e., hexafluoropropylene oxide dimer acid (HFPO-DA), or GenX). Results from this study showed that bioaccumulation factors in root and shoot (BCFroot and BCFshoot) ranged from 0.7 to 83.6 and 0.95 to 26.9, respectively. Phyllanthus urinaria harbored the highest PFAS bioaccumulation capacity among the four urban weed species. The log BCFroot of PFCA homologues showed a concave shape as a function of chain length, while log BCFroot of PFSA increased with chain length. The BCFroot of GenX was lower than that of PFOA; likewise, 6:2 FTS bioaccumulated to a less extent than PFOS. Root uptake seemed to be the dominant accumulation mechanism for the shorter-chain compounds, whereas adsorption was the dominant mechanism for longer-chain compounds such as PFOA. BCFroot and BCFshoot showed consistent trends in response to foliar and root characteristics. Leaf area and average root diameter were the most correlated traits with PFAS bioaccumulation factors, with higher BCF values for plants with smaller leaves and finer roots. This study also provides an important basis for the role and selection of urban weeds in future PFAS bioaccumulation and translocation studies within urban settings.GenX (HFPO-DA), 6:2 FTS, Urban Spontaneous Plants, Bioaccumulation, Phytoremediationhttps://pubs.acs.org/doi/abs/10.1021/acsestengg.1c0042310.1021/acsestengg.1c00423
Grieger K., Merck A., Kuzma K. (2022) Formulating best practices for responsible innovation of nano-agrifoods through stakeholder insights and reflection. Journal of Responsible Technology 10. doi: 10.1016/j.jrt.2022.100030. PDF Graphical abstractFormulating best practices for responsible innovation of nano-agrifoods through stakeholder insights and reflectionKhara Grieger, Ashton Merck, Jennifer Kuzma2022Nanotechnology in food and agriculture (nano-agrifoods) may provide numerous benefits to society. At the same time, previous experiences have demonstrated the importance of innovating responsibly. This study reports on stakeholder-identified actions to address concerns about nano-agrifoods and actions to ensure their responsible innovation (RI). We find stakeholders largely supported actions to address risk and safety, followed by governance actions, the examination of ‘need,’ and identification of clear benefits. Participants also indicated no actions would address their concerns in several cases, largely for nano-in food products without a clear ‘need’ and risk/benefit comparisons. We conclude by highlighting four best practices to foster RI of nano-agrifoods, with relevancy for other novel agrifood technologies, including the institutionalization of RI, education and training next generation of researchers and innovators, use of tiered approaches to implement RI principles at different levels and degrees, and incorporation of monitoring and learning systems to improve RI practicesDiscusses stakeholder-identified actions for responsible innovation (RI) in nano-agrifoods, a field with potential benefits and risks. The research highlights four best practices: institutionalizing RI, training future researchers and innovators, implementing RI principles at different levels using a tiered approach, and introducing monitoring and learning systems to improve RI practices. These insights are relevant not just for nano-agrifoods, but for other novel agrifood technologies as well.Nanotechnology, Food, Agriculture, Stakeholders, Responsible Innovationhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S266665962200007510.1016/j.jrt.2022.100030
Baun A., Grieger K. (2022) Environmental Risk Assessment of Emerging Contaminants—The Case of Nanomaterials. In: Guo LH., Mortimer M. (eds) Advances in Toxicology and Risk Assessment of Nanomaterials and Emerging Contaminants. Springer, Singapore. doi: 10.1007/978-981-16-9116-4_15. PDFEnvironmental Risk Assessment of Emerging Contaminants—The Case of NanomaterialsKhara Grieger2022Risk assessment is a powerful tool to help evaluate potential environmental and health risks of novel materials. However, traditional risk assessment frameworks and methods often face significant challenges when evaluating novel materials due to uncertainties and data gaps. Engineered nanomaterials is one prominent example of new, advanced materials whereby scientists, researchers and decision-makers are still discussing best practices to modify and update risk assessment frameworks after nearly two decades of research. This chapter focuses on how early warning signs within the environmental risk assessment development process for nanomaterials were addressed with a focus on characterizing uncertainty. We shed light on how environmental risk assessment of nanomaterials transitioned from a state of “known unknowns” to data-driven inputs to conducting risk assessments. We also discuss ecotoxicological testing considerations, and in particular how methodological and technical challenges were addressed. Finally, we provide recommendations on how best to transfer identified best practices and knowledge to other emerging technologies and advanced materials.Risk Assessment, Nanomaterials, Uncertainty, Hazard, Exposurehttps://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-981-16-9116-4_15 "_blank">Environmental Risk Assessment of Emerging Contaminants—The Case of Nanomaterials10.1007/978-981-16-9116-4_15
Hannah Star Rogers et al. Art's Work in the Age of Biotechnology: Shaping Our Genetic Futures. Leonardo 2022; 55 (1): 5–17. https://doi.org/10.1162/leon_a_01966. Access PDF. Go to Art's Work/Genetic Futures website.Art's Work in the Age of Biotechnology: Shaping Our Genetic FuturesHannah Star Rogers2022Art’s Work in the Age of Biotechnology: Shaping Our Genetic Futures is a multisite exhibition that explores art’s relationship to biotechnology. The main exhibition was held at North Carolina State University, October 2019–March 2020, and was sponsored by the Genetic Engineering and Society Center, the North Carolina State University Libraries and the Gregg Museum of Art & Design. The project included a Field Trial exhibition at Contemporary Art Museum of Raleigh (CAM Raleigh), a related interdisciplinary planning symposium and installations at the Gregg Museum of Art & Design, the D.H. Hill Jr. Library, the Hunt Library and the North Carolina Museum of Art’s (NCMA) Ann and Jim Goodnight Museum Park, as well as a response symposium. The exhibition aimed to elicit discussion about genetics in society through provocative contemporary art and to offer viewers new ways to think about their role in the genetic revolution. Artists addressed questions often set aside in scientific conversations about biotechnology, including questions of access, sex and gender, race, the rights and roles of animals and the involvement of corporations.Art's Work/Genetic Futures, Exhibition, SciArt, Contemporary Arthttps://research.ncsu.edu/ges/artswork-article-leonardo-2022/10.1162/leon_a_01966
Jordan, N.R., Kuzma, J., Ray, D.K., Foot, K., Snider, M., Miller, K., et al. (2022) Should Gene Editing Be Used to Develop Crops for Continuous-Living-Cover Agriculture? A Multi-Sector Stakeholder Assessment Using a Cooperative Governance Approach. Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology 10. doi: 10.3389/fbioe.2022.843093 PDFShould Gene Editing Be Used to Develop Crops for Continuous-Living-Cover Agriculture? A Multi-Sector Stakeholder Assessment Using a Cooperative Governance ApproachJennifer Kuzma2022Continuous-living-cover (CLC) agriculture integrates multiple crops to create diversified agroecosystems in which soils are covered by living plants across time and space continuously. CLC agriculture can greatly improve production of many different ecosystem services from agroecosystems, including climate adaptation and mitigation. To go to scale, CLC agriculture requires crops that not only provide continuous living cover but are viable in economic and social terms. At present, lack of such viable crops is strongly limiting the scaling of CLC agriculture. Gene editing (GE) might provide a powerful tool for developing the crops needed to expand CLC agriculture to scale. To assess this possibility, a broad multi-sector deliberative group considered the merits of GE—relative to alternative plant-breeding methods—as means for improving crops for CLC agriculture. The group included many of the sectors whose support is necessary to scaling agricultural innovations, including actors involved in markets, finance, policy, and R&D. In this article, we report findings from interviews and deliberative workshops. Many in the group were enthusiastic about prospects for applications of GE to develop crops for CLC agriculture, relative to alternative plant-breeding options. However, the group noted many issues, risks, and contingencies, all of which are likely to require responsive and adaptive management. Conversely, if these issues, risks, and contingencies cannot be managed, it appears unlikely that a strong multi-sector base of support can be sustained for such applications, limiting their scaling. Emerging methods for responsible innovation and scaling have potential to manage these issues, risks, and contingencies; we propose that outcomes from GE crops for CLC agriculture are likely to be much improved if these emerging methods are used to govern such projects. However, both GE of CLC crops and responsible innovation and scaling are unrefined innovations. Therefore, we suggest that the best pathway for exploring GE of CLC crops is to intentionally couple implementation and refinement of both kinds of innovations. More broadly, we argue that such pilot projects are urgently needed to navigate intensifying grand challenges around food and agriculture, which are likely to create intense pressures to develop genetically-engineered agricultural products and equally intense social conflict.Emerging Biotechnologies, Gene Editing, Continuous-Living-Cover (CLC) Crops, Cooperative Governance, Stakeholder Engagementhttps://www.frontiersin.org/article/10.3389/fbioe.2022.84309310.3389/fbioe.2022.843093
Grieger, K., Zarate, S., Barnhill-Dilling, S.K., Hunt, S., Jones, D., Kuzma, J. 2022. Fostering Responsible Innovation through Stakeholder Engagement: Case Study of North Carolina Sweetpotato Stakeholders. Sustainability, 14, 2274. doi: 10.3390/su14042274 PDFFostering Responsible Innovation through Stakeholder Engagement: Case Study of North Carolina Sweetpotato StakeholdersKhara Grieger, Sebastian Zarate, Katie Barnhill-Dilling, Daniela Jones, Jennifer Kuzma2022Stakeholder and community engagement are critical for the successful development of new technologies that aim to be integrated into sustainable agriculture systems. This study reports on an approach used to engage stakeholders within the sweetpotato community in North Carolina to understand their preferences, needs, and concerns as they relate to a new sensing and diagnostic platform. This work also demonstrates an example of real-time technology assessment that also fosters responsible innovation through inclusivity and responsiveness. Through the conduction of 29 interviews with sweetpotato stakeholders in North Carolina, we found that participants found the most value in detecting external sweetpotato characteristics, as well as the ability to use or connect to a smartphone that can be used in field. They also found value in including environmental parameters and having a Spanish language module. Most participants indicated that they were comfortable with sharing data as long as it benefited the greater North Carolina sweetpotato industry, and were concerned with sharing these data with “outside” competitors. We also observed differences and variations between stakeholder groups. Overall, this work demonstrates a relatively simple, low-cost approach to eliciting stakeholder needs within a local agricultural context to improve sustainability, an approach that could be leveraged and transferred to other local agrifood systems.Responsible Innovation, Stakeholder Engagement, Sustainability, Sweetpotatoeshttps://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/14/4/227410.3390/su14042274
Williams TT, Kuzma J. Narrative policy framework at the macro level—cultural theory-based beliefs, science-based narrative strategies, and their uptake in the Canadian policy process for genetically modified salmon. Public Policy and Administration. February 2022. doi:10.1177/09520767211065609Narrative policy framework at the macro level—cultural theory-based beliefs, science-based narrative strategies, and their uptake in the Canadian policy process for genetically modified salmonTeshanee Williams, Jennifer Kuzma2022This study utilizes the Narrative Policy Framework (NPF) and cultural theory to examine the use of policy narratives by coalitions (meso-level) and the institutional uptake (macro-level). We analyze Parliamentary hearings about genetically modified (GM) salmon in Canada to associate narrative strategies with certain cultural worldviews and policy-stances. We explore narrative strategies used by cultural groups with regard to whether they contain the scope of GM salmon issues to “science-only” (direct health and environmental impacts) or expand the issues to “science-plus” (to include broader economic, social, or cultural impacts). Finally, we examine whether certain framings of GM salmon issues or specific cultural narratives are preferentially taken up in the final policy documents generated after the hearings. Our findings reveal significant relationships between policy-stance (pro-vs anti-GM), the cultural disposition of a policy narrative, the narrative strategies being used, and ultimately policy uptake. For example, narratives with hierarchical cultural dispositions were more likely to expand the scope of the issue to science-plus when supporting their own policy position (typically pro-GM) but contain the scope to “science-only” when refuting an anti-GM policy-stance. With regard to policy uptake, final government documents referred more to narratives that contained the scope to “science-only” and expressed hierarchical or individualistic dispositions in comparison to the hearings. This study has practical implications for understanding whose perspectives and arguments are legitimized in national policy debates about GM foods. It also extends NPF theory to how narratives containing specific cultural dispositions and risk-based framings influence policy uptake at the macro-level.Narrative Policy Framework, Cultural Theory, Genetically Modified Foodhttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0952076721106560910.1177/09520767211065609
Ruzante, J. M., Shumaker, E. T., Holt, S., Mayer, S., Kokotovich, A., Cuchiara, M., Binder, A. R., Kuzma, J., & Grieger, K. (2022). Eliciting stakeholder perceptions using a novel online engagement platform: A case study on nano-agrifoods. RTI Press. RTI Press Occasional Paper No. OP-0071-2201. doi: 10.3768/rtipress.2022.op.0071.2201 PDFEliciting stakeholder perceptions using a novel online engagement platform: A case study on nano-agrifoodsAdam Kokotovich, Andrew Binder, Jennifer Kuzma, Khara Grieger2022Stakeholder engagement is an important component in developing policies on critical issues such as the use and development of novel methods and technologies, including biotechnologies and nanotechnologies. Understanding the perspectives, needs, and concerns of stakeholder groups can facilitate the development of transparent and trusted policy recommendations. Innovative online research platforms have been developed as alternatives to typical stakeholder engagement methods such as in-person focus groups, interviews, and online and paper surveys. These platforms facilitate the engagement of geographically and linguistically (i.e., individuals who speak different languages) diverse stakeholders using a wide range of methods, from virtual focus groups to surveys. Stakeholders can participate at their own leisure and anonymously, which can facilitate more open interactions on issues where viewpoints may differ. In this work, we used an online stakeholder engagement platform (OSEP) to engage stakeholders and capture their perceptions and views about the application of nanotechnology in food and agriculture (nano-agrifood) and the role of responsible innovation in the development of nano-agrifood products. The OSEP provided a reliable and interactive environment for stakeholders to share their views and exchange ideas. Such OSEPs should be further explored as novel tools for engaging stakeholders on a range of issues from emerging technologies to public health.Stakeholder Engagement, Nanotechnology, Governance, Responsible Innovation, Food, Agriculturehttps://www.rti.org/rti-press-publication/nanotechnology-in-food10.3768/rtipress.2022.op.0071.2201
Kokotovich, A.E., Barnhill-Dilling, S.K., Elsensohn, J.E., Li, R., Delborne, J.A., Burrack, H.. Stakeholder engagement to inform the risk assessment and governance of gene drive technology to manage spotted-wing drosophila. Journal of Environmental Management (2022). doi: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.114480. PDFStakeholder engagement to inform the risk assessment and governance of gene drive technology to manage spotted-wing drosophilaAdam Kokotovich, Katie Barnhill-Dilling, Johanna Elsensohn, Jason Delborne, Hannah Burrack2022Emerging biotechnologies, such as gene drive technology, are increasingly being proposed to manage a variety of pests and invasive species. As one method of genetic biocontrol, gene drive technology is currently being developed to manage the invasive agricultural pest spotted-wing drosophila (Drosophila suzukii, SWD). While there have been calls for stakeholder engagement on gene drive technology, there has been a lack of empirical work, especially concerning stakeholder engagement to inform risk assessment. To help address this gap and inform future risk assessments and governance decisions for SWD gene drive technology, we conducted a survey of 184 SWD stakeholders to explore how they define and prioritize potential benefits and potential adverse effects from proposed SWD gene drive technology. We found that stakeholders considered the most important potential benefits of SWD gene drive technology to be: 1) Decrease in the quantity or toxicity of pesticides used, and 2) Decrease in SWD populations. Stakeholders were most concerned about the potential adverse effects of: 1) Decrease in beneficial insects, 2) Increase in non-SWD secondary pest infestations, and 3) Decrease in grower profits. Notably, we found that even stakeholders who expressed support for the use of SWD gene drive technology expressed concerns about potential adverse effects from the technology, emphasizing the need to move past simplistic, dichotomous views of what it means to support or oppose a technology. These findings suggest that instead of focusing on the binary question of whether stakeholders support or oppose SWD gene drive technology, it is more important to identify and assess the factors that are consequential to stakeholder decision making – including, for example, exploring whether and under what conditions key potential adverse effects and potential benefits would result from the use of SWD gene drive technology.Gene Drive, Stakeholder Engagement, Risk Assessment, Governancehttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0301479722000536?dgcid=coauthor10.1016/j.jenvman.2022.114480
Nelson, K.P., Parton, L.C., Brown, Z.S. Biofuels policy and innovation impacts: Evidence from biofuels and agricultural patent indicators. Energy Policy 162 (2022) 112767. doi: 10.1016/j.enpol.2021.112767. PDFBiofuels policy and innovation impacts: Evidence from biofuels and agricultural patent indicatorsKelly Nelson, Zack Brown2022In the early 2000s, governments implemented policies stimulating the use of ethanol and biodiesel to reduce carbon emissions and encourage domestic energy production. Blend mandates requiring gasoline or diesel to contain a minimum percentage of these biofuels were a favored policy instrument. Theoretical work by Clancy and Moschini (2017) concluded that, if innovation were stimulated by mandates, then the socially optimal mandate would be higher than if innovation were not possible. We test the impact of blend mandates and other biofuels policies on innovation using measures of patenting activity that correspond with research effort and research output. Our analysis shows that ethanol blend mandates significantly increased both R&D effort and quality-weighted innovation output in biofuels technologies while reducing the R&D inputs to plant technologies. This suggests that biofuels innovation increased in response to the policies, with firms substituting some R&D effort away from plant technologies research. Despite decreased R&D effort, output of plant innovation held steady as effort shifted to biofuels, supporting the presence of a spillover effect between biofuels innovation and plant innovation. We find that biodiesel blend mandates did not significantly impact R&D efforts in either plant or biofuels technologies. Furthermore, policies other than blend mandates had varying effects, ranging from limited increases in R&D activity to significant decreases in innovation. Biofuels, Patenting, Biotechnology, Bayesian Model Averaginghttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S030142152100633910.1016/j.enpol.2021.112767
Kokotovich, A.E., Kuzma, J., Cummings, C.L., Grieger, K.. Responsible Innovation Definitions, Practices, and Motivations from Nanotechnology Researchers in Food and Agriculture. Nanoethics (2021). doi: 10.1007/s11569-021-00404-9 PDFResponsible Innovation Definitions, Practices, and Motivations from Nanotechnology Researchers in Food and AgricultureAdam Kokotovich, Jennifer Kuzma, Christopher L. Cummings, Khara Grieger2021The growth of responsible innovation (RI) scholarship has been mirrored by a proliferation of RI definitions and practices, as well as a recognition of the importance of context for RI. This study investigates how researchers in the field of nanotechnology for food and agriculture (nano-agrifoods) define and practice RI, as well as what motivations they see for pursuing RI. We conducted 20 semi-structured interviews with nano-agrifood researchers from industry and academia in the USA, where we asked them to describe their RI definitions, practices, and motivations. We analyzed the emergent themes from these interviews, including how the themes aligned with four prominent RI principles (anticipation, inclusion, reflexivity, responsiveness). We found that nano-agrifood researchers largely focused their descriptions of RI definitions, practices, and motivations around a narrow envisioning of the RI principle of anticipation — emphasizing product safety, efficacy, and efficiency. We also found noteworthy tensions surrounding the less frequently mentioned RI principles. For example, some researchers envisioned inclusion as a way to align products with industry interests while others saw it as a way to align products with the public good. Concerning motivations for RI, some researchers viewed RI as a way to protect one’s reputation and avoid lawsuits while others viewed it as a way to improve human well-being and solve societal problems. Given these findings, future efforts to foster RI within nano-agrifoods should promote discussions among researchers concerning what it means to responsibly innovate and what practices this could entail, particularly beyond ensuring product safety, efficacy, and efficiency.Responsible Innovation, Nanotechnology, Food, Agriculture, Governance, Qualitative Researchhttps://rdcu.be/cEHOW10.1007/s11569-021-00404-9
Kuzma, Jennifer,“ Deficits of Public Deliberation in U.S. Oversight for Gene Edited Organisms,” in Gene Editing in the Wild: Shaping Decisions through Broad Public Deliberation, ed. Michael K. Gusmano et al., special report, Hastings Center Report 51, no. S2 (2021): S25– S33. DOI: 10.1002/hast.1317. PDFDeficits of Public Deliberation in U.S. Oversight for Gene Edited OrganismsJennifer Kuzma2021Environmental releases of gene edited (GEdOs) and gene drive organisms (GDOs) will likely occur under conditions of high uncertainty and in complex socioecological systems. Therefore, public deliberation is especially important to account for diverse interpretations of safety, risks, and benefits; to draw on experiential and public wisdom in areas of proposed release; to ameliorate dangers of technological optimism; and to increase the public legitimacy of decisions. Yet there is a “democratic deficit” in the United States' oversight system for GEdOs and GDOs, as unconflicted experts, publics, and skeptical stakeholders are most often excluded from decision-making and unavailable to critically examine potential risks and benefits or raise broader concerns about socioeconomic or cultural impacts. This article argues for the need to open up decision-making for GEdOs and GDOs, discusses the challenges for doing so within the current oversight framework, and finally, proposes institutional, policy, and attitudinal changes that are likely important for overcoming barriers to public deliberation.Gene Editing, Public Engagement, Deliberation, Regulation, Governance, Risk Analysishttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hast.1317?af=R10.1002/hast.1317
Barnhill-Dilling, S. Kathleen, Kokotovich, Adam, and Delborne, Jason A., “The Decision Phases Framework for Public Engagement: Engaging Stakeholders about Gene Editing in the Wild,” in Gene Editing in the Wild: Shaping Decisions through Broad Public Deliberation, ed. Michael K. Gusmano et al., special report, Hastings Center Report 51, no. S2 (2021): S48– S61. DOI: 10.1002/hast.1320 PDFThe Decision Phases Framework for Public Engagement: Engaging Stakeholders about Gene Editing in the WildKatie Barnhill-Dilling, Adam Kokotovich, Jason Delborne2021Some experts and advocates propose environmental biotechnologies such as genetic engineering, gene drive systems, and synthetic biology as potential solutions to accelerating rates of species loss. While these tools may offer hope for a seemingly intractable problem, they also present potential governance challenges for which innovative decision-making systems are required. Two of the perennial governance challenges include, when are broader stakeholder groups involved in these decisions and who exactly should be involved? We propose the decision phases framework—which includes research and development, regulatory review, and deployment, management, and monitoring—as a framework for identifying which stakeholders might be best suited for different phases throughout the innovation and deployment of emerging environmental biotechnologies for species protection.Stakeholder Engagement, Environmental Biotechnologies, Gene Editinghttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/hast.132010.1002/hast.1320
Katherine L. Taylor, Kelly A. Hamby, Alexandra M. DeYonke, Fred Gould, Megan L. Fritz. Genome evolution in an agricultural pest following adoption of transgenic crops. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Dec 2021, 118 (52) e2020853118; DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2020853118 PDFGenome evolution in an agricultural pest following adoption of transgenic cropsFred Gould2021Replacing synthetic insecticides with transgenic crops for pest management has been economically and environmentally beneficial, but these benefits erode as pests evolve resistance. It has been proposed that novel genomic approaches could track molecular signals of emerging resistance to aid in resistance management. To test this, we quantified patterns of genomic change in Helicoverpa zea, a major lepidopteran pest and target of transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops, between 2002 and 2017 as both Bt crop adoption and resistance increased in North America. Genomic scans of wild H. zea were paired with quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses and showed the genomic architecture of field-evolved Cry1Ab resistance was polygenic, likely arising from standing genetic variation. Resistance to pyramided Cry1A.105 and Cry2Ab2 toxins was controlled by fewer loci. Of the 11 previously described Bt resistance genes, 9 showed no significant change over time or major effects on resistance. We were unable to rule out a contribution of aminopeptidases (apns), as a cluster of apn genes were found within a Cry-associated QTL. Molecular signals of emerging Bt resistance were detectable as early as 2012 in our samples, and we discuss the potential and pitfalls of whole-genome analysis for resistance monitoring based on our findings. This first study of Bt resistance evolution using whole-genome analysis of field-collected specimens demonstrates the need for a more holistic approach to examining rapid adaptation to novel selection pressures in agricultural ecosystems.Helicoverpa Zea, Bt Resistance, Temporal Genomic Change, Polygenic Adaptationhttps://www.pnas.org/content/118/52/e202085311810.1073/pnas.2020853118
Grieger, K.D, Merck, A.W., Cuchiara, M., Binder, A.R., Kokotovich, A., Cummings, C.L., Kuzma, J. Responsible innovation of nano-agrifoods: Insights and views from U.S. stakeholders. NanoImpact, Volume 24, 2021, doi: 10.1016/j.impact.2021.100365. PDFResponsible innovation of nano-agrifoods: Insights and views from U.S. stakeholdersKhara Grieger, Ashton Merck, Andrew Binder, Adam Kokotovich, Christopher L. Cummings, Jennifer Kuzma2021To date, there has been little published work that has elicited diverse stakeholder views of nano-agrifoods and of how nano-agrifoods align with the goals of responsible innovation. This paper aims to fill this research gap by investigating views of nano-agrifoods, how well their development adheres to principles of responsible innovation, and potential challenges for achieving responsible nano-agrifood innovation. Using an online engagement platform, we find that U.S. stakeholder views of responsible innovation were dominated by environmental, health, and safety (EHS) contexts, considerations of societal impacts, opportunities for stakeholder engagement, and responding to societal needs. These views overlap with scholarly definitions of responsible innovation, albeit stakeholders were more focused on impacts of products, while the field of responsible innovation strives for more “upstream” considerations of the process of innovation. We also find that views of nano-agrifoods differed across applications with dietary supplements and improved whitening of infant formula viewed least favorably, and environmental health or food safety applications viewed most favorably. These findings align with the larger body of literature, whereby stakeholders are expected to be more supportive of nanotechnology used in agricultural applications compared to directly within food and food supplements. Overall, participants indicated they held relatively neutral views on research and innovation for nano-agrifoods being conducted responsibly, and they identified key challenges to ensuring their responsible innovation that were related to uncertainties in EHS studies, the need for public understanding and acceptance, and adequate regulation. In light of these results, we recommend future research efforts on EHS impacts and risk-benefit frameworks for nano-agrifoods, better understanding stakeholder views on what constitutes effective regulation, and addressing challenges with effective regulation and responsible innovation practices. Graphical abstractFood And Agriculture, Nanotechnology, Responsible Innovation, Stakeholder Engagementhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2452074821000744?via=ihub10.1016/j.impact.2021.100365
Todd Kuiken and Jennifer Kuzma. July 2021. Genome Editing in Latin America: Regional Regulatory Overview/Edición génica aplicada a la agricultura: Resumen del marco regulatorio regional. Inter-American Development Bank. DOI: 10.18235/0003410. English version/Versión en españolGenome Editing in Latin America: Regional Regulatory Overview/Edición génica aplicada a la agricultura: Resumen del marco regulatorio regionalJennifer Kuzma, Todd Kuiken2021As discussed throughout this document, many countries in the LAC region have established genome editing specific governance systems while others have not specifically implemented genome editing specific governance systems and appear to include them in their current biosafety frameworks. While much of the LAC region appears to be coalescing around a similar interpretation of how genome editing will be governed, it is not yet clear if or how international treaties governing these tools (e.g., Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety to the Convention on Biological Diversity) will ultimately decide. This discussion document is a starting point at assessing the landscape of genome editing oversight in LAC, and it provides a broad overview of the state of GMO crops and gene edited crops governance in nine selected countries (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, and Uruguay). Regulation, Governance, CRISPR, Latin America, Genome Editing, Inter-American Development Bankhttps://research.ncsu.edu/ges/research/idb-crispr/#resources10.18235/0003410.
Margo Bagley. July 2021. Genome Editing in Latin America: CRISPR Patent and Licensing Policy/ Edición génica aplicada a la agricultura: Politicas de patentes y licencias CRISPR en Americá Latina. Inter-American Development Bank. DOI: 10.18235/0003409. English version/Versión en españolGenome Editing in Latin America: CRISPR Patent and Licensing Policy/ Edición génica aplicada a la agricultura: Politicas de patentes y licencias CRISPR en Americá LatinaMargo Bagley2021The goal of this discussion document is to provide an overview of the CRISPR plant agriculture patent landscape, as well as to identify and describe key licensing protocols for Latin American companies and institutes interested in engaging in CRISPR plant agricultural research. Part II describes the numbers and locations of CRISPR plant agriculture-related patents being pursued in the Latin American countries of interest for this study (Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Honduras, Mexico, Paraguay, Peru, Uruguay) as well as the organizations behind the filings. Part III identifies the holders of foundational CRISPR plant agriculture-related patents and describes their general licensing protocols necessary for deploying the technology in the region. The brief concludes by noting that the CRISPR plant agriculture patent landscape is changing rapidly, and it will be incumbent on researchers to regularly assess the need for licenses from other entities.Intellectual Property, CRISPR, Latin America, Genome Editing, Inter-American Development Bankhttps://research.ncsu.edu/ges/research/idb-crispr/#resources10.18235/0003409.
Marlin E Rice. Fred Gould: Indeed, I Was a Hippie. American Entomologist, Volume 67, Issue 2, Summer 2021, Pages 14–20, https://doi.org/10.1093/ae/tmab029 PDFFred Gould: Indeed, I Was a HippieFred Gould2021Fred Gould, Entomologyhttps://doi.org/10.1093/ae/tmab02910.1093/ae/tmab029
S. Kathleen Barnhill-Dilling, Jason A. Delborne. Stakeholder Perspectives on Modified Foliar Fungal Endophytes. Genetic Engineering and Society Center, NC State University. September 2021. Online at https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/research/fun-crops. PDFStakeholder Perspectives on Modified Foliar Fungal EndophytesKatie Barnhill-Dilling, Jason Delborne2021FUN-CROPS, Foliar Fungal Endophytes, Bioengineering, Regulation, Governancehttps://research.ncsu.edu/ges/research/fun-crops/0
S. Kathleen Barnhill-Dilling, Jason A. Delborne. How might bioengineered fungal endophytes be regulated in the U.S.? Genetic Engineering and Society Center, NC State University. July 2021. Online at https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/research/fun-crops. PDFHow might bioengineered fungal endophytes be regulated in the U.S.?Katie Barnhill-Dilling, Jason Delborne2021FUN-CROPS, Foliar Fungal Endophytes, Bioengineering, Stakeholder Engagementhttps://research.ncsu.edu/ges/research/fun-crops/0
Karavolias NG, Horner W, Abugu MN, and Evanega SN (2021). Application of Gene Editing for Climate Change in Agriculture. Front. Sustain. Food Syst. 5:685801. doi: 10.3389/fsufs.2021.685801. PDFApplication of Gene Editing for Climate Change in AgricultureModesta Abugu2021Climate change imposes a severe threat to agricultural systems, food security, and human nutrition. Meanwhile, efforts in crop and livestock gene editing have been undertaken to improve performance across a range of traits. Many of the targeted phenotypes include attributes that could be beneficial for climate change adaptation. Here, we present examples of emerging gene editing applications and research initiatives that are aimed at the improvement of crops and livestock in response to climate change, and discuss technical limitations and opportunities therein. While only few applications of gene editing have been translated to agricultural production thus far, numerous studies in research settings have demonstrated the potential for potent applications to address climate change in the near future.Gene Edited Crops, Livestock Genetics, Climate Change, Agriculture, Food System, Food Security, Crop Biotechnologyhttps://doi.org/10.3389/fsufs.2021.685801/full10.3389/fsufs.2021.685801/full
Kokotovich, A. E., J. A. Delborne, K. Redford, T. Cook, E. Leslie, J. Sieracki, and D. Trevino. 2021. Free-ranging cats: Understanding conflict and the potential for engagement. Natural Resource Report NPS/NRSS/BRD/NRR—2021/2297. National Park Service, Fort Collins, Colorado. doi: 10.36967/nrr-2287250 PDFFree-ranging cats: Understanding conflict and the potential for engagementAdam Kokotovich, Jason Delborne2021Free-ranging domestic cats (Felis catus)—cats that spend any of their time outside and unconfined—pose a challenge to the National Park Service (NPS) because of their potential negative impacts to biodiversity and because of the history of stakeholder conflict around their management. In the face of recent calls for a more collaborative approach to management, we examined the conflict among free-ranging cat stakeholders and explored how engagement could be used to help inform NPS decision making. First, we analyzed position statements on free-ranging cats from key national-level organizations to understand how they differ and their implications for approaches to engagement. Second, we interviewed twelve stakeholders who have been involved with free-ranging cat issues at the national level to explore, at a deeper level, what contributes to free-ranging cat conflict, whether engagement is possible, and what might support a collaborative approach. We found that despite the frequent framing of free-ranging cat management as a two-sided issue, 1) all groups agreed upon the goal of having fewer free-ranging cats, and 2) management preferences reflected greater diversity than simple polarization. In addition, interviewees widely, although not unanimously, agreed on the need for a more collaborative and less conflictual approach to free-ranging cat management and highlighted two key factors that could help: 1) recognizing the importance of ecological and social contexts in considering the impact of free-ranging cats and appropriate management actions, and 2) navigating polarization, in part by improving relationships. We conclude by offering eight recommended approaches for NPS free-ranging cat engagement.National Park Service, Free Ranging Cats, Biodiversity, Public Engagement, Stakeholder Conflicthttps://doi.org/10.36967/nrr-228725010.36967/nrr-2287250
Grieger, K., Isigonis, P., Franken, R., Wigger, H., Bossa, N., Janer, G., Rycroft, T., Kennedy, A., Hansen, S.F. 2021. Chapter 5: Risk Screening Tools for Engineering Nanomaterials. IN: Ethics in Nanotechnology: Social Sciences and Philosophical Aspects, edited by Marcel Van de Voorde and Gunjan Jeswani, Berlin, Boston: De Gruyter, 2021, pp. 89-108. doi: 10.1515/9783110719932-005Risk Screening Tools for Engineering NanomaterialsKhara Grieger2021It has now been more than 15 years since scientists, researchers, risk analyzers, policymakers, and other decision-makers initiated comprehensive investigations into the potential environmental, health, and safety risks of engineered nanomaterials. During this time, various tools have been proposed and/or developed to screen potential environmental, health, and safety risks of engineered nanomaterials. Risk screening tools provide a first-tiered, screening-level evaluation to better understand risks without significant time and resource investments. Stakeholders interested in obtaining an initial screen of potential environmental, health, and safety risks of a nanomaterial or product may find risk screening tools particularly useful to formulate decisions, and/or communicate potential risks to stakeholders. This chapter overviews five leading risk screening tools developed specifically for nanomaterials: NanoRiskCat, Swiss Precautionary Matrix, LICARA nanoSCAN, NanoGRID, and GUIDEnano. The selected tools differ in scope, aims, underlying methodologies, and generated output. These tools were selected for further exploration due to the maturity of their development, application in multiple case studies, projects, and initiatives. After highlighting the main features of each of the risk screening tools, we provide brief guidance on their use and formulate broad recommendations for the field of nanomaterial risk screening tool development.Environmental Health And Safety, Nanotechnology, Nanomaterials, Risk Screeninghttps://www.degruyter.com/document/doi/10.1515/9783110719932-005/html10.1515/9783110719932-005
Zhi, Y., Call, D., Grieger, K., Duckworth, O., Jones, J.L., Knappe, D. 2021. Influence of Natural Organic Matter and pH on Phosphate Removal by and Lanthanum Release from Lanthanum-Modified Bentonite. Water Research; doi: 10.1016/j.watres.2021.117399. PDFInfluence of Natural Organic Matter and pH on Phosphate Removal by and Lanthanum Release from Lanthanum-Modified BentoniteKhara Grieger2021Lanthanum modified bentonite (LMB) has been applied to eutrophic lakes to reduce phosphorus (P) concentrations in the water column and mitigate P release from sediments. Previous experiments suggest that natural organic matter (NOM) can interfere with phosphate (PO4)-binding to LMB and exacerbate lanthanum (La)-release from bentonite. This evidence served as motivation for this study to systematically determine the effects of NOM, solution pH, and bentonite as a La carrier on P removal. We conducted both geochemical modeling and controlled-laboratory batch kinetic experiments to understand the pH-dependent impacts of humic and fulvic acids on PO4-binding to LMB and La release from LMB. The role of bentonite was studied by comparing PO4 removal obtained by LMB and La3+ (added as LaCl3 salt to represent the La-containing component of LMB). Our results from both geochemical modeling and batch experiments indicate that the PO4-binding ability of LMB is decreased in the presence of NOM, and the decrease is more pronounced at pH 8.5 than at 6. At the highest evaluated NOM concentration (28 mg C L−1), PO4-removal by La3+ was substantially lower than that by LMB, implying that bentonite clay in LMB shielded La from interactions with NOM, while still allowing PO4capture by La. Finally, the presence of NOM promoted La-release from LMB, and the amount of La released depended on solution pH and both the type (i.e., fulvic/humic acid ratio) and concentration of NOM. Overall, these results provide an important basis for management of P in lakes and eutrophication control that relies on LMB applications.Eutrophication, Lake Restoration, Lanthanum Release, Humic And Fulvic Acid, Phosphate Managementhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.watres.2021.11739910.1016/j.watres.2021.117399
Cegan JC, Trump BD, Cibulsky SM, Collier ZA, Cummings CL, Greer SL, Jarman H, Klasa K, Kleinman G, Surette MA, Wells E, Linkov I. Can Comorbidity Data Explain Cross-State and Cross-National Difference in COVID-19 Death Rates? Risk Manag Healthc Policy. 2021;14:2877-2885. doi: 10.2147/RMHP.S313312. PDFCan Comorbidity Data Explain Cross-State and Cross-National Difference in COVID-19 Death Rates?Christopher L. Cummings2021Many efforts to predict the impact of COVID-19 on hospitalization, intensive care unit (ICU) utilization, and mortality rely on age and comorbidities. These predictions are foundational to learning, policymaking, and planning for the pandemic, and therefore understanding the relationship between age, comorbidities, and health outcomes is critical to assessing and managing public health risks. From a US government database of 1.4 million patient records collected in May 2020, we extracted the relationships between age and number of comorbidities at the individual level to predict the likelihood of hospitalization, admission to intensive care, and death. We then applied the relationships to each US state and a selection of different countries in order to see whether they predicted observed outcome rates. We found that age and comorbidity data within these geographical regions do not explain much of the international or within-country variation in hospitalization, ICU admission, or death. Identifying alternative explanations for the limited predictive power of comorbidities and age at the population level should be considered for future research.Comorbidity, Health Outcomes, COVID-19, Mortality Rateshttps://www.dovepress.com/articles.php?article_id=6671610.2147/RMHP.S313312
Barnes, Jessica C. and Jason A. Delborne. The politics of genetic technoscience for conservation: The case of blight-resistant American chestnut. Environment and Planning E: Nature and Space. June 2021. doi:10.1177/25148486211024910. PDFThe politics of genetic technoscience for conservation: The case of blight-resistant American chestnutJessica Cavin Barnes, Jason Delborne2021Innovations in genetics and genomics have been heavily critiqued as technologies that have widely supported the privatization and commodification of natural resources. However, emerging applications of these tools to ecological restoration challenge narratives that cast genetic technoscience as inevitably enrolled in the enactment and extension of neoliberal capitalism. In this paper, we draw on Langdon Winner’s theory of technological politics to suggest that the context in which genetic technologies are developed and deployed matters for their political outcomes. We describe how genetic approaches to the restoration of functionally extinct American chestnut trees—by non-profit organizations, for the restoration of a wild, heritage forest species, and with unconventional intellectual property protections—are challenging precedents in the political economy of plant biotechnology. Through participant observation, interviews with scientists, and historical analysis, we employ the theoretical lens provided by Karl Polanyi’s double movement to describe how the anticipations and agency of the developers of blight-resistant American chestnut trees, combined with chestnut biology and the context of restoration, have thus far resisted key forms of the genetic privatization and commodification of chestnut germplasm. Still, the politics of blight-resistant American chestnut remain incomplete and undetermined; we thus call upon scholars to use the uneven and socially constructed character of both technologies and neoliberalism to help shape this and other applications of genetic technoscience for conservation.Genetic Engineering, Neoliberalism, Double Movement, Forest Biotechnology, Ecological Restorationhttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/epub/10.1177/2514848621102491010.1177/25148486211024910
Kuzma, Jennifer and Christopher L. Cummings. Cultural Beliefs and Stakeholder Affiliation Influence Attitudes Towards Responsible Research and Innovation Among United States Stakeholders Involved in Biotechnology and Gene Editing. Frontiers in Political Science 24 June 2021, Vol. 3, DOI: 10.3389/fpos.2021.677003. PDFCultural Beliefs and Stakeholder Affiliation Influence Attitudes Towards Responsible Research and Innovation Among United States Stakeholders Involved in Biotechnology and Gene EditingJennifer Kuzma, Christopher L. Cummings2021Biotech developers are concerned about the future of gene editing having experienced the contentious history of first-generation GM foods. They have also expressed desires to do better with public engagement in gene-editing innovation. The framework of Responsible Research and Innovation (RRI) may provide a way forward to act on their desires for greater public legitimacy. However, in the United States, -there has also been reluctance to incorporate RRI into biotechnology innovation systems like gene editing in food and agriculture. In this article, we investigate individual- and group-level factors, including demographic, sociographic, and cultural factors, that influence attitudes towards RRI among biotechnology United States stakeholders. Using the Advocacy Coalition Framework’s (ACF) hierarchy of beliefs as a theoretical guide, biotechnology stakeholders (n = 110) were surveyed about their cultural (deep-core) beliefs and then about their attitudes towards principles (policy-core beliefs) and practices (secondary beliefs) of RRI applied to biotechnology innovation. Through statistical analysis of the results, we found significant relationships between stronger egalitarian cultural-beliefs and positive attitudes towards both the principles and practices of RRI. We also found that participants with higher levels of experience held more positive attitudes towards principles of RRI. In contrast, we found a significant inverse relationship between professional affiliation with industry or trade organizations and attitudes towards RRI practices. With these results, we present a model of factors that influence RRI attitudes for future testing. In closing, we interpret the results in the context of ACF to examine the potential for building cross-sector coalitions for practicing RRI within United States gene-editing innovation systems.Responsible Innovation, RRI, CCE-STEM, Public Engagement, Advocacy Coalition Framework, Gene Editing, CRISPRhttps://doi.org/10.3389/fpos.2021.67700310.3389/fpos.2021.677003
Cummings Christopher L., Kuzma Jennifer, Kokotovich Adam, Glas David, Grieger Khara (2021). Barriers to responsible innovation of nanotechnology applications in food and agriculture: A study of US experts and developers. NanoImpact, 100326, ISSN 2452-0748. doi:10.1016/j.impact.2021.100326. PDFBarriers to responsible innovation of nanotechnology applications in food and agriculture: A study of US experts and developersChristopher L. Cummings, Jennifer Kuzma, Adam Kokotovich, Khara Grieger2021The use of nanotechnology and engineered nanomaterials in food and agriculture (nano-agrifood) sectors is intended to provide several potential benefits to consumers and society, such as the provision of more nutritious processed foods, edible food coatings to extend shelf lives of fresh cut produce, and more sustainable alternatives to traditional agrochemicals. The responsible innovation of nano-agrifoods may be particularly important to pursue given previous case studies involving other agrifood technologies that experienced significant public consternation. Here, we define responsible innovation following Stilgoej et al. (2013) that establishes processes to iteratively review and reflect upon one's innovation, engage stakeholders in dialogue, and to be open and transparent throughout innovation stages – processes that go beyond primary focuses of understanding environmental, health, and safety impacts of nano-enabled products and implementing safe-by-design principles. Despite calls for responsible nano-innovation across diverse sectors, it has not yet been clear what types of barriers are faced by nano-agrifood researchers and innovators in particular. This study therefore identifies and builds the first typology of barriers to responsible innovation as perceived by researchers and product developers working in nano-agrifood sectors in the United States. Our findings report 5 key barriers to responsible innovation of nano-agrifoods: Lack of Data (reported by 70% of all interview participants, and represented 34.6% of all barrier-related excerpts), Lack of Product Oversight (reported by 60% of participants, and represented 28.7% of excerpts), Need for Ensuring Marketability & Use (reported by 70% of participants, and represented 21.3% of all barrier-related excerpts), Need for Increased Collaboration (reported by 40% of participants, and represented 10.3% of excerpts), and finally Lack of Adequate Training & Workforce (reported by 30% of participants, and represented by 5.1% of excerpts). We also relate these key barriers across three main nano-innovation phases, including 1) Scientific and Technical R&D, 2) Product Oversight, and 3) Post-commercialization Marketability & Use, and discuss how these barriers may impact stakeholders as well as present opportunities to align with principles of responsible innovation. Overall, these findings may help illuminate challenges that researchers and innovators face in the pursuit of responsible innovation relevant for the field of nanotechnology with relevancy for other emerging food and agricultural technologies more broadly.Responsible Innovation, Nanotechnology, Nano-Agrifoodhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S245207482100035510.1016/j.impact.2021.100326
Gregory Jaffe and Jennifer Kuzma. "New Bioengineered (aka GM) Food Disclosure Law: Useful Information or Consumer Confusion?" Food and Drug Law Institute. https://www.fdli.org/2021/04/new-bioengineered-aka-gm-food-disclosure-law-useful-information-or-consumer-confusion. Accessed 28 April 2021. PDFNew Bioengineered (aka GM) Food Disclosure Law: Useful Information or Consumer Confusion?Jennifer Kuzma2021Bioengineered Food, Regulation, Governance, Transparency, Labelinghttps://www.fdli.org/2021/04/new-bioengineered-aka-gm-food-disclosure-law-useful-information-or-consumer-confusion0
Barnhill-Dilling, SK and Delborne, JA. Whose intentions? What consequences? Interrogating “Intended Consequences” for conservation with environmental biotechnology. Conservation Science and Practice 2021; e406. doi: 10.1111/csp2.406. PDFWhose intentions? What consequences? Interrogating “Intended Consequences” for conservation with environmental biotechnologyKatie Barnhill-Dilling, Jason Delborne2021Novel genetic interventions may offer innovative solutions to environmental conservation challenges, but they also represent new kinds of risks and concerns for diverse publics. Yet, by focusing on potential negative outcomes of emerging technologies like gene editing, their potential utility in species protection could lead to overblown fears of unknown and unanticipated consequences. In response, Revive and Restore organized a workshop in June 2020 entitled, “Intended Consequences,” to highlight conservation successes in the discourse and governance of genomic interventions. This article argues that if we seek to emphasize Intended Consequences to embolden innovative conservation efforts, we must simultaneously query whose intentions are included and what consequences are considered to ensure that environmental goals are accompanied by the goals of responsibility, democracy, and justice. These questions reveal that the governance and management of conservation interventions always rest upon value judgements. Inspired and informed by the Responsible Research and Innovation framework, we encourage anticipation of potential outcomes, reflection on assumptions and intentions, inclusion of diverse stakeholders and perspectives, and a commitment to responding thoughtfully to concerns and preferences of communities and broader publics.Biotechnology, Conservation, Responsible Research And Innovationhttps://conbio.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/csp2.40610.1111/csp2.406
Phelan, R, Baumgartner, B, Brand, S... Delborne, JA, Saah, JR, et al. Intended consequences statement. Conservation Science and Practice 2021; e371. doi: 10.1111/csp2.371. PDFIntended consequences statementJason Delborne, J. Royden Saah2021As the biodiversity crisis accelerates, the stakes are higher for threatened plants and animals. Rebuilding the health of our planet will require addressing underlying threats at many scales, including habitat loss and climate change. Conservation interventions such as habitat protection, management, restoration, predator control, translocation, genetic rescue, and biological control have the potential to help threatened or endangered species avert extinction. These existing, well‐tested methods can be complemented and augmented by more frequent and faster adoption of new technologies, such as powerful new genetic tools. In addition, synthetic biology might offer solutions to currently intractable conservation problems. We believe that conservation needs to be bold and clear‐eyed in this moment of great urgency.Biodiversity, Public Engagement, Conservation, Emerging Technologieshttps://conbio.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/csp2.37110.1111/csp2.371
Hartley, S., Smith, R.D.J., Kokotovich, A. et al. Ugandan stakeholder hopes and concerns about gene drive mosquitoes for malaria control: new directions for gene drive risk governance. Malar J 20, 149 (2021). doi: 10.1186/s12936-021-03682-6 PDFUgandan stakeholder hopes and concerns about gene drive mosquitoes for malaria control: new directions for gene drive risk governanceAdam Kokotovich2021The African Union’s High-Level Panel on Emerging Technologies identified gene drive mosquitoes as a priority technology for malaria elimination. The first field trials are expected in 5–10 years in Uganda, Mali or Burkina Faso. In preparation, regional and international actors are developing risk governance guidelines which will delineate the framework for identifying and evaluating risks. Scientists and bioethicists have called for African stakeholder involvement in these developments, arguing the knowledge and perspectives of those people living in malaria-afflicted countries is currently missing. However, few African stakeholders have been involved to date, leaving a knowledge gap about the local social-cultural as well as ecological context in which gene drive mosquitoes will be tested and deployed. This study investigates and analyses Ugandan stakeholders’ hopes and concerns about gene drive mosquitoes for malaria control and explores the new directions needed for risk governance.Malaria Control, Gene Drive Mosquitoes, Uganda, Stakeholders, Risk Governance, Risk Assessment, Target Malariahttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s12936-021-03682-610.1186/s12936-021-03682-6
Cummings, C.L., Miller, C.S. COVID-19: how a self-monitoring checklist can empower early intervention and slow disease progression. Environ Syst Decis (2021). doi: 10.1007/s10669-021-09806-2. PDFCOVID-19: how a self-monitoring checklist can empower early intervention and slow disease progressionChristopher L. Cummings2021The SARS-CoV-2 novel coronavirus pandemic has revealed many scientific, social, and institutional challenges required to improve the health and wellbeing of individuals stricken by this disease. While organizations and governing institutions have risen to the task to concurrently prepare for and respond to this pandemic under conditions of high uncertainty and extreme pressure, another important aspect of this viral infection deserves attention and is not being fully considered, that is early intervention strategies and structured tools for individuals who test positive for the virus and begin developing symptoms. For those whose infection is progressing, we describe the potential benefits of a self-monitoring tool for use in combination with physician directed early medical interventions to slow COVID-19 progression.COVID-19, Risk, Early Intervention, Risk Responsehttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10669-021-09806-210.1007/s10669-021-09806-2
Elsensohn, J.E., Aly, M.F.K., Schal, C., Burrack, H.J.. Social signals mediate oviposition site selection in Drosophila suzukii. Sci Rep 11, 3796 (2021). doi: 10.1038/s41598-021-83354-2Social signals mediate oviposition site selection in Drosophila suzukiiJohanna Elsensohn, Hannah Burrack2021The information that female insects perceive and use during oviposition site selection is complex and varies by species and ecological niche. Even in relatively unexploited niches, females interact directly and indirectly with conspecifics at oviposition sites. These interactions can take the form of host marking and re-assessment of prior oviposition sites during the decision-making process. Considerable research has focused on the niche breadth and host preference of the polyphagous invasive pest Drosophila suzukii Matsumura (Diptera: Drosophilidae), but little information exists on how conspecific signals modulate oviposition behavior. We investigated three layers of social information that female D. suzukii may use in oviposition site selection—(1) pre-existing egg density, (2) pre-existing larval occupation, and (3) host marking by adults. We found that the presence of larvae and host marking, but not egg density, influenced oviposition behavior and that the two factors interacted over time. Adult marking appeared to deter oviposition only in the presence of an unmarked substrate. These results are the first behavioral evidence for a host marking pheromone in a species of Drosophila. These findings may also help elucidate D. suzukii infestation and preference patterns within crop fields and natural areas.Agroecology, Behavioural Ecology, Invasive Species, Microbial Ecologyhttps://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-021-83354-210.1038/s41598-021-83354-2
Kuiken T, Barrangou R, Grieger K. (Broken) Promises of Sustainable Food and Agriculture through New Biotechnologies: The CRISPR Case. CRISPR J. 2021 Feb 10:1-7. doi: 10.1089/crispr.2020.0098.PDF(Broken) Promises of Sustainable Food and Agriculture through New Biotechnologies: The CRISPR CaseTodd Kuiken, Rodolphe Barrangou, Khara Grieger2021In recent years, the development of diverse CRISPR-based technologies has revolutionized genome manipulation and enabled a broad scientific community in industry, academia, and beyond to redefine research and development for biotechnology products encompassing food, agriculture, and medicine. CRISPR-based genome editing affords tremendous opportunities in agriculture for the breeding of crops and livestock across the food supply chain that could benefit larger portions of the population compared to CRISPR applications in medicine, for example by helping to feed a growing global population, reach sustainability goals, and possibly mitigate the effects of climate change. These promises come alongside concerns of risks and adverse impacts associated with CRISPR-based genome editing and concerns that governance systems that are ill equipped or not well suited to evaluate these risks. The international community will continue to gather, in multiple venues, in the coming years to discuss these concerns. At the same time, responsible research and innovation paradigms also promise to evaluate the risks and benefits better while incorporating broad stakeholder engagement across the research and development process. The CRISPR community therefore must actively engage with these international deliberations, society, and national governance systems that have promised to build better agricultural systems and provide better food products to achieve equitable outcomes while protecting the environment. Without this active engagement, the promises discussed in this paper are sure to be broken.CRISPR, Stakeholder Engagement, Responsible Research And Innovationhttps://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33570455/10.1089/crispr.2020.0098
Kuiken, Todd. Biotech: An Environmentalist’s Dilemna. Biodesigned, January 21, 2021. Online at https://www.biodesigned.org/todd-kuiken/biotech-an-environmentalists-dilemmaBiotech: An Environmentalist's DilemnaTodd Kuiken2021Biotechnology, Synthetic Biology, Art, Environmenthttps://www.biodesigned.org/todd-kuiken/biotech-an-environmentalists-dilemma0
Kuzma, J. and Grieger, K. 2020. Community-led governance for gene-edited crops. Science, Vol. 370, Issue 6519. doi: 10.1126/science.abd1512Community-led governance for gene-edited cropsJennifer Kuzma, Khara Grieger2020New government regulations for biotechnology will create gaps in oversight of gene-edited crops and the provision of information to consumers. With this lack of transparency, gene-edited crop developers may be reconstituting the same conditions that led to public rejection and mistrust of the 1st generation of GM foods. Based on our decades of experience and the literature on risk governance and GM crops, we propose a “Community-Led Responsible Governance” (CLEAR-GOV) coalition and certification process for biotech crops based on information-sharing about the host plants, traits, environment, and current and anticipated market uses of gene-edited and other GM crops. CLEAR-GOV would be led by an independent non-profit coalition, a stakeholder advisory group, and a public advisory group that is diverse in representation of viewpoints and interests. Commitment to CLEAR-GOV will enable the agricultural biotechnology community to earn greater public trust through the open, inclusive, and transparent monitoring of biotech crop use.Responsible Innovation, Biotechnology, Governance, CRISPR, Gene-Editinghttps://science.sciencemag.org/content/370/6519/91610.1126/science.abd1512
Kanya C. Long, Luke Alphey, George J. Annas, Cinnamon S. Bloss, Karl J. Campbell, George M. Church, James P. Collins, Kimberly L. Cooper, Jason A. Delborne, Kevin Esvelt, Sam Weiss Evans, Fred Gould, Sarah Hartley, Jennifer Kuzma, Marce Lorenzen, Jeantine E. Lunshof, Megan J. Palmer, J. Royden Saah, Maxwell J. Scott, et. al. 2020. Core commitments for field trials of gene drive organisms. Science, 18 Dec 2020, Vol. 370, Issue 6523, pp. 1417-1419. doi: 10.1126/science.abd1908 PDFCore commitments for field trials of gene drive organismJason Delborne, Fred Gould, Jennifer Kuzma, Marce Lorenzen, J. Royden Saah, Maxwell Scott2020Gene Drive, Field Trials, Governance, Risk/Benefit Assessment, Transparencyhttps://www.biodesigned.org/todd-kuiken/biotech-an-environmentalists-dilemma10.1126/science.abd1908
Doydora, S., Gatiboni, L., Grieger, K., Hesterberg, D., Jones, J., McLamore, E., Peters, R., Sozzani, R., Van den Broeck, L., Duckworth O. Accessing Legacy Phosphorus in Soil. Soil Systems, 4(74): doi:10.3390/soilsystems4040074 PDFAccessing Legacy Phosphorus in SoilKhara Grieger2020Repeated applications of phosphorus (P) fertilizers result in the buildup of P in soil (commonly known as legacy P), a large fraction of which is not immediately available for plant use. Long-term applications and accumulations of soil P is an inefficient use of dwindling P supplies and can result in nutrient runoff, often leading to eutrophication of water bodies. Although soil legacy P is problematic in some regards, it conversely may serve as a source of P for crop use and could potentially decrease dependence on external P fertilizer inputs. This paper reviews the (1) current knowledge on the occurrence and bioaccessibility of different chemical forms of P in soil, (2) legacy P transformations with mineral and organic fertilizer applications in relation to their potential bioaccessibility, and (3) approaches and associated challenges for accessing native soil P that could be used to harness soil legacy P for crop production. We highlight how the occurrence and potential bioaccessibility of different forms of soil inorganic and organic P vary depending on soil properties, such as soil pH and organic matter content. We also found that accumulation of inorganic legacy P forms changes more than organic P species with fertilizer applications and cessations. We also discuss progress and challenges with current approaches for accessing native soil P that could be used for accessing legacy P, including natural and genetically modified plant-based strategies, the use of P-solubilizing microorganisms, and immobilized organic P-hydrolyzing enzymes. It is foreseeable that accessing legacy P will require multidisciplinary approaches to address these limitations.Legacy Phosphorus, Speciation, Transformation, Accessibilityhttps://www.mdpi.com/2571-8789/4/4/74/htm10.3390/soilsystems4040074
Brown, Zachary S., Lawson Connor, Roderick M. Rejesus, and Jose M. Yorobe Jr (2020). Landscape-level feedbacks in the demand for transgenic pesticidal corn in the Philippines. Ecological Economics, 180: 106883. doi: 10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106883 PDFLandscape-level feedbacks in the demand for transgenic pesticidal corn in the PhilippinesZack Brown2020We introduce a novel econometric approach to estimate economic pest control feedbacks within agroecological systems, using discrete choice endogenous sorting models. We apply this approach to deployment of transgenic Bt maize in the Philippines. We show with basic theory how areawide pest suppression from largescale Bt maize deployment attenuates farmers' demand for this technology. Econometric results support this hypothesis and imply long-run demand for the Bt trait is price-inelastic, contrasting with price-elastic demand estimated from a model without feedback. Investigating whether this feedback truly derives from areawide pest suppression, we analyze farmers' pest infestation expectations and find expected damages are significantly reduced by higher areawide Bt deployment. We discuss implications of these findings and other potential applications of the econometric approach to study coupled biological and economic systems.Agroecology, Bioeconomic Feedbacks, Areawide Pest Suppression, Crop Choice, Discrete Choice Models, Endogenous Sortinghttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0921800919321950?via=ihub10.1016/j.ecolecon.2020.106883
Berube, D.M., Bogomoletc, E., Eng, N. et al. Social science and infrastructure networks and the human–technology interface. J Nanopart Res 22, 296 (2020). doi:10.1007/s11051-020-05022-2. PDFSocial science and infrastructure networks and the human–technology interfaceDavid Berube2020Social science research (under the guise of SEI [societal and ethical implications]) in association with nanotechnology infrastructure networks (in this case, the Research Triangle Nanotechnology Network) is challenging due to the unique function of an infrastructure network. Infrastructure networks share laboratory resources and make available to the user in the early stages in the technological process. As such, characterization and fabrication activities demand fine-tuned social science tools appropriate to the subject instant. This article examines the application of a process of “deep assessment” akin to grounded theory that examines a subset of societal and ethical issues derived from assessing activities proximate to users as they interface with the network. It presents assessment data over the last 5 years that is being used to design the research questions and research hypotheses that answer some of the most important societal concerns of the infrastructure network. These highly valued SEI activities are contextually relevant to the operation and management of the facilities in the infrastructure.Social Science, Nantechnology, Societal And Ethical Implications, Nanotechnology Infrastructure Network,https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11051-020-05022-210.1007/s11051-020-05022-2
Zhi, Y., Zhang, C., Hjorth, R., Baun, A., Duckworth, O.W., Call, D.F., Knappe, D.R.U., Jones, J.L., Grieger, K. (2020) Emerging lanthanum (III)-containing materials for phosphate removal from water: A review towards future developments. Environment International, 435: 109257. DOI: 10.1016/j.envint.2020.106115 PDFEmerging lanthanum (III)-containing materials for phosphate removal from water: A review towards future developmentsKhara Grieger2020The last two decades have seen a rise in the development of lanthanum (III)-containing materials (LM) for controlling phosphate in the aquatic environment. >70 papers have been published on this topic in the peer-reviewed literature, but mechanisms of phosphate removal by LM as well as potential environmental impacts of LM remain unclear. In this review, we summarize peer-reviewed scientific articles on the development and use of 80 different types of LM in terms of prospective benefits, potential ecological impacts, and research needs. We find that the main benefits of LM for phosphate removal are their ability to strongly bind phosphate under diverse environmental conditions (e.g., over a wide pH range, in the presence of diverse aqueous constituents). The maximum phosphate uptake capacity of LM correlates primarily with the La content of LM, whereas reaction kinetics are influenced by LM formulation and ambient environmental conditions (e.g., pH, presence of co-existing ions, ligands, organic matter). Increased La solubilization can occur under some environmental conditions, including at moderately acidic pH values (i.e., 7 and moderate-to-high bicarbonate alkalinity, although caution should be applied when considering LM use in aquatic systems with acidic pH values and low bicarbonate alkalinity. Moving forward, we recommend additional research dedicated to understanding La release from LM under diverse environmental conditions as well as long-term exposures on ecological organisms, particularly primary producers and benthic organisms. Further, site-specific monitoring could be useful for evaluating potential impacts of LM on both biotic and abiotic systems post-application.Lanthanum, Phosphate, Surface Water Restoration, Eutrophication Control, Phosphorus Inactivationhttps://doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.10611510.1016/j.envint.2020.106115
Huang, Y., Li, W., Gao, J., Wang, F., Yang, W., Han, L., Lin, D., Min, B., Zhi, Y., Grieger, K., Yao, J. Effect of microplastics on ecosystem function: Microbial nitrogen removal mediated by benthic macroinvertebrates. Science of the Total Environment, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142133.Effect of microplastics on ecosystem function: Microbial nitrogen removal mediated by benthic macroinvertebratesKhara Grieger2020While ecotoxicological impacts of microplastics on aquatic organisms have started to be investigated recently, impacts on ecosystem functions mediated by benthic biota remain largely unknown. We investigated the effect of microplastics on nitrogen removal in freshwater sediments where microorganisms and benthic invertebrates (i.e., chironomid larvae) co-existed. Using microcosm experiments, sediments with and without invertebrate chironomid larvae were exposed to microplastics (polyethylene) at concentrations of 0, 0.1, and 1 wt%. After 28 days of exposure, the addition of microplastics or chironomid larvae promoted the growth of denitrifying and anammox bacteria, leading to increased total nitrogen removal, in both cases. However, in microcosms with chironomid larvae and microplastics co-existing, nitrogen removal was less than the sum of their individual effects, especially at microplastics concentration of 1 wt%, indicating an adverse effect on microbial nitrogen removal mediated by macroinvertebrates. This study reveals that the increasing concentration of microplastics entangled the nitrogen cycling mediated by benthic invertebrates in freshwater ecosystems. These findings highlight the pursuit of a comprehensive understanding of the impacts of microplastics on the functioning in freshwater ecosystems.Microplastics, Nitrogen Removal Function, Denitrification, Anammox, Chironomids, Microorganismshttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S004896972035662X10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.142133
Saia, S., Nelson, N., Huseth, A., Grieger, K., Reich, B., Transitioning Machine Learning from Theory to Practice in Natural Resource Management. Ecological Modelling, 435: 109257. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2020.109257 PDFTransitioning Machine Learning from Theory to Practice in Natural Resource ManagementKhara Grieger2020Advances in sensing and computation have accelerated at unprecedented rates and scales, in turn creating new opportunities for natural resources managers to improve adaptive and predictive management practices by coupling large environmental datasets with machine learning (ML). Yet, to date, ML models often remain inaccessible to managers working outside of academic research. To identify challenges preventing natural resources managers from putting ML into practice more broadly, we convened a group of 23 stakeholders (i.e., applied researchers and practitioners) who model and analyze data collected from environmental and agricultural systems. Workshop participants shared many barriers regarding their perceptions of, and experiences with, ML modeling. These barriers emphasized three main areas of concern: ML model transparency, availability of educational resources, and the role of process-based understanding in ML model development. Informed by workshop participant input, we offer recommendations on how the ecological modelling community canovercome key barriers preventing ML model use in natural resources management and advance the profession towards data-driven decision-making.Machine Learning, Natural Resources Management, Stakeholders, Decision-Support Tools, Decision-Making, Process-Based Modelinghttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0304380020303276?via=ihub10.1016/j.ecolmodel.2020.109257
Roberts, P, Herkert, J and Kuzma, J. 2020. Responsible innovation in biotechnology: Stakeholder attitudes and implications for research policy. Elem Sci Anth, 8(1): 47. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1525/elementa.446 Download PDFResponsible innovation in biotechnology: Stakeholder attitudes and implications for research policyPat Roberts, Joseph Herkert, Jennifer Kuzma2020This article explores attitudes of stakeholders involved in biotechnology towards the Responsible Innovation (RI) framework. As a framework for governance, RI has received increasing scholarly attention but has yet to be successfully integrated into U.S. research and innovation policy. Using a mixed methods approach, we analyzed the attitudes of different biotechnology stakeholders, particularly those working in areas related to genetically modified organisms (GMOs) in agriculture and the environment, towards the principles and practices of RI. Homogenous focus groups (organized by stakeholder affiliation) and pre- and post-focus group surveys were used to measure attitudes towards RI. We designed the survey questions according to the Advocacy Coalition Framework (ACF) and examined the agreement of stakeholders with policy core beliefs (general principles of RI) and secondary beliefs (implementation practices of RI). Although all stakeholder groups had neutral to positive attitudes towards RI general principles, we found significant differences in their reactions to the scholarly definitions of RI and in their attitudes towards practices to implement RI. In comparison to government and advocacy groups, stakeholders promoting biotechnology innovations–industry, trade organizations, and academics–had more negative reactions to social science definitions of RI and to RI practices that relinquish control to people outside of technology development pipelines. Qualitative analysis of focus-groups revealed barriers for implementing RI practices. For example, innovators were cynical about including external voices in innovation pathways due to inflexible funding programs and were concerned about potential delays to innovation given the highly competitive environments for financing and patents. In order to help address these tensions, we call for the co-design of RI practices between biotechnology innovators and other stakeholders. The opening-up of biotechnology innovation to RI practices of anticipation, inclusion, responsiveness and reflexivity will likely be important for future, public legitimacy of emerging genetic engineering applications such as gene editing and gene drives.Responsible Innovation, Biotechnology, Governance, GMOshttps://jhupbooks.press.jhu.edu/title/feeding-world-well/table-of-contents10.1525/elementa.446
Cummings, CL, Rosenthal, S., and Kong, W. (2020). Secondary Risk Theory: Validation of a Novel Model of Protection Motivation. Risk Analysis. doi: 10.1111/risa.13573Secondary Risk Theory: Validation of a Novel Model of Protection MotivationChristopher L. Cummings2020Protection motivation theory states individuals conduct threat and coping appraisals when deciding how to respond to perceived risks. However, that model does not adequately explain today's risk culture, where engaging in recommended behaviors may create a separate set of real or perceived secondary risks. We argue for and then demonstrate the need for a new model accounting for a secondary threat appraisal, which we call secondary risk theory. In an online experiment, 1,246 participants indicated their intention to take a vaccine after reading about the likelihood and severity of side effects. We manipulated likelihood and severity in a 2 × 2 between‐subjects design and examined how well secondary risk theory predicts vaccination intention compared to protection motivation theory. Protection motivation theory performed better when the likelihood and severity of side effects were both low (R2 = 0.30) versus high (R2 = 0.15). In contrast, secondary risk theory performed similarly when the likelihood and severity of side effects were both low (R2 = 0.42) or high (R2 = 0.45). But the latter figure is a large improvement over protection motivation theory, suggesting the usefulness of secondary risk theory when individuals perceive a high secondary threat.Protection Motivation, Risk Response, Risk Tradeoffs, Secondary Risk Theory, Secondary Riskshttps://doi.org/10.1111/risa.1357310.1111/risa.13573
Kuzma J (2020). U.S. Oversight of GM Crops: A Place for Values? In Eds Goldberg, A. Feeding the World Well. John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore, MD.U.S. Oversight of GM Crops: A Place for Values?Jennifer Kuzma2020In the United States, food is abundant and cheap but loaded with hidden costs to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the people who work in our food systems. The country's current food production systems lack diversity in crops and animals and are intensified but not sustainable, inhumane in the treatment of animals, and inconsiderate of labor. In order to feed the world's rapidly growing population with high-quality, ethically produced food, new food production systems are urgently needed. These new systems must be genetically diverse and environmentally sustainable, and they need to follow internationally recognized animal welfare and labor practices.Food, Ethics, Values, Regulation, Governancehttps://jhupbooks.press.jhu.edu/title/feeding-world-well/table-of-contents10.1353/book.78560
S. Zhao, C-H Yue, and J. Kuzma (2020) Consumer expectations and attitudes toward nanomaterials in foods. Pages 705-733. Chapter 17, Handbook of Food Nanotechnology: Applications and Approaches. Academic Press Elsevier: Cambridge MA. July 2020. doi: 10.1016/B978-0-12-815866-1.00017-0Consumer expectations and attitudes toward nanomaterials in foodsJennifer Kuzma2020Many food companies are developing nanotechnology-modified food packaging and it is critical to understand the informational and attitudinal factors that influence public acceptance of nanopackaging. This chapter first reviews the market situation for nanotechnology in the food packaging industry, including the benefits and potential risks of nanotechnology application in the food industry, the market trend for nanotechnology in food, consumer acceptance of nanotechnology in food, and the possible factors affecting consumer acceptance. Then a case study will be presented that uses an experimental auction with real nanopackaged products to test and compare consumer acceptance of nanopackaged food products with information from various sources. The case study results indicate consumer acceptance for and attitude toward nanopackaged food products are changing corresponding to the information perceived: for plain-labeled food products, a reliance on government regulation was the only determinant influencing participants’ willingness to pay; after general information about nanotechnology was given, participants were willing to pay more for nanopackaged products. This was affected by their general attitude toward new food technology and concerns about environment/health.Nanopackage, Nanotechnology, Experimental Auction, Structural Equation Model, Information Effect, Willingness-To-Pay, Foodhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/B9780128158661000170?via=ihub10.1016/B978-0-12-815866-1.00017-0
Kuzma J., J. Paradise, G. Ramachandran, JA Kim, A. Kokotovich, SM. Wolf. (2020) An Integrated Approach to Oversight Assessment for Emerging Technologies. Chapter 17 in Emerging Technologies: Ethics, Law and Governance. Eds. Gary E. Marchant, Wendell Wallach. London: Routledge. 23 pp. July 2020. doi: 10.4324/9781003074960An Integrated Approach to Oversight Assessment for Emerging TechnologiesJennifer Kuzma2020Analysis of oversight systems is often conducted from a single disciplinary perspective and by using a limited set of criteria for evaluation. In this article, we develop an approach that blends risk analysis, social science, public administration, legal, public policy, and ethical perspectives to develop a broad set of criteria for assessing oversight systems. Multiple methods, including historical analysis, expert elicitation, and behavioral consensus, were employed to develop multidisciplinary criteria for evaluating oversight of emerging technologies. Sixty-six initial criteria were identified from extensive literature reviews and input from our Working Group. Criteria were placed in four categories reflecting the development, attributes, evolution, and outcomes of oversight systems. Expert elicitation, consensus methods, and multidisciplinary review of the literature were used to refine a condensed, operative set of criteria. Twenty-eight criteria resulted spanning four categories: seven development criteria, 15 attribute criteria, five outcome criteria, and one evolution criterion. These criteria illuminate how oversight systems develop, operate, change, and affect society. We term our approach “integrated oversight assessment” and propose its use as a tool for analyzing relationships among features, outcomes, and tradeoffs of oversight systems. Comparisons among historical case studies of oversight using a consistent set of criteria should result in defensible and evidence-supported lessons to guide the development of oversight systems for emerging technologies, such as nanotechnology.Governance, Nanotechnology, Emerging Technologies, Oversighthttps://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/978100307496010.4324/9781003074960
G. Ramachandran, S M. Wolf, J Paradise, J Kuzma, R Hall, E Kokkoli, L Fatehi. (2020) Recommendations for oversight of nanobiotechnology: dynamic oversight for complex and convergent technology Chapter 22 in Emerging Technologies: Ethics, Law and Governance. Eds. Gary E. Marchant, Wendell Wallach. London: Routledge. 27 pp. July 2020. doi: 10.4324/9781003074960Recommendations for oversight of nanobiotechnology: dynamic oversight for complex and convergent technologyJennifer Kuzma2020Federal oversight of nanobiotechnology in the U.S. has been fragmented and incremental. The prevailing approach has been to use existing laws and other administrative mechanisms for oversight. However, this “stay-the-course” approach will be inadequate for such a complex and convergent technology and may indeed undermine its promise. The technology demands a new, more dynamic approach to oversight. The authors are proposing a new oversight framework with three essential features: (a) the oversight trajectory needs to be able to move dynamically between “soft” and “hard” approaches as information and nano-products evolve; (b) it needs to integrate inputs from all stakeholders, with strong public engagement in decision-making to assure adequate analysis and transparency; and (c) it should include an overarching coordinating entity to assure strong inter-agency coordination and communication that can meet the challenge posed by the convergent nature of nanobiotechnology. The proposed framework arises from a detailed case analysis of several key oversight regimes relevant to nanobiotechnology and is informed by inputs from experts in academia, industry, NGOs, and government.Governance, Nanotechnology, Emerging Technologies, Oversighthttps://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/e/978100307496010.4324/9781003074960
Yves Carrière, Zachary Brown, Serkan Aglasan, Pierre Dutilleul, Matthew Carroll, Graham Head, Bruce E. Tabashnik, Peter Søgaard Jørgensen, Scott P. Carroll. Crop rotation mitigates impacts of corn rootworm resistance to transgenic Bt corn. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Jul 2020, 202003604. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003604117Crop rotation mitigates impacts of corn rootworm resistance to transgenic Bt cornZack Brown2020Transgenic crops that produce insecticidal proteins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) can suppress pests and reduce insecticide sprays, but their efficacy is reduced when pests evolve resistance. Although farmers plant refuges of non-Bt host plants to delay pest resistance, this tactic has not been sufficient against the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. In the United States, some populations of this devastating pest have rapidly evolved practical resistance to Cry3 toxins and Cry34/35Ab, the only Bt toxins in commercially available corn that kill rootworms. Here, we analyzed data from 2011 to 2016 on Bt corn fields producing Cry3Bb alone that were severely damaged by this pest in 25 crop-reporting districts of Illinois, Iowa, and Minnesota. The annual mean frequency of these problem fields was 29 fields (range 7 to 70) per million acres of Cry3Bb corn in 2011 to 2013, with a cost of $163 to $227 per damaged acre. The frequency of problem fields declined by 92% in 2014 to 2016 relative to 2011 to 2013 and was negatively associated with rotation of corn with soybean. The effectiveness of corn rotation for mitigating Bt resistance problems did not differ significantly between crop-reporting districts with versus without prevalent rotation-resistant rootworm populations. In some analyses, the frequency of problem fields was positively associated with planting of Cry3 corn and negatively associated with planting of Bt corn producing both a Cry3 toxin and Cry34/35Ab. The results highlight the central role of crop rotation for mitigating impacts of D. v. virgifera resistance to Bt corn.Resistance Management, Resistance Mitigation, Landscape Analysishttps://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.200360411710.1073/pnas.2003604117
Benjamin D Trump, SE Galaitsi, Evan Appleton, Diederik A Bleijs, Marie‐Valentine Florin, Jimmy D Gollihar, R Alexander Hamilton, Todd Kuiken, et al. Building biosecurity for synthetic biology. PNAS, Jul 2020, 202003604. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.2003604117. Download PDFBuilding biosecurity for synthetic biologyTodd Kuiken2020The fast‐paced field of synthetic biology is fundamentally changing the global biosecurity framework. Current biosecurity regulations and strategies are based on previous governance paradigms for pathogen‐oriented security, recombinant DNA research, and broader concerns related to genetically modified organisms (GMO s). Many scholarly discussions and biosecurity practitioners are therefore concerned that synthetic biology outpaces established biosafety and biosecurity measures to prevent deliberate and malicious or inadvertent and accidental misuse of synthetic biology's processes or products. This commentary proposes three strategies to improve biosecurity: Security must be treated as an investment in the future applicability of the technology; social scientists and policy makers should be engaged early in technology development and forecasting; and coordination among global stakeholders is necessary to ensure acceptable levels of risk.Biosecurity, Synthetic Biology, STS, Policy, Public Engagementhttps://doi.org/10.15252/msb.2020972310.1073/pnas.2003604117
Natalie Kofler and Jennifer Kuzma. Before genetically modified mosquitoes are released, we need a better EPA. Boston Globe, Published: 22 June 2020. Online at: https://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/06/22/opinion/before-genetically-modified-mosquitoes-are-released-we-need-better-epa/. Download PDFBefore genetically modified mosquitoes are released, we need a better EPAJennifer Kuzma2020If risks are being assessed, it is largely happening behind closed doors between technology developers and EPA employees.EPA, Transparency, GM Mosquitoes, Disease Control, Governancehttps://www.bostonglobe.com/2020/06/22/opinion/before-genetically-modified-mosquitoes-are-released-we-need-better-epa/0
Allan, Brian, Chris Stone, Holly Tuten, Jennifer Kuzma, Natalie Kofler. Genetically modified mosquitoes could be released in Florida and Texas beginning this summer – silver bullet or jumping the gun?. The Conversation, Published: 3 June 2020. Online at: https://theconversation.com/genetically-modified-mosquitoes-could-be-released-in-florida-and-texas-beginning-this-summer-silver-bullet-or-jumping-the-gun-139710. Download PDFGenetically modified mosquitoes could be released in Florida and Texas beginning this summer – silver bullet or jumping the gun?Jennifer Kuzma2020This summer, for the first time, genetically modified mosquitoes could be released in the U.S. On May 1, 2020, the company Oxitec received an experimental use permit from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to release millions of GM mosquitoes (labeled by Oxitec as OX5034) every week over the next two years in Florida and Texas. Females of this mosquito species, Aedes aegypti, transmit dengue, chikungunya, yellow fever and Zika viruses. When these lab-bred GM males are released and mate with wild females, their female offspring die. Continual, large-scale releases of these OX5034 GM males should eventually cause the temporary collapse of a wild population. However, as vector biologists, geneticists, policy experts and bioethicists, we are concerned that current government oversight and scientific evaluation of GM mosquitoes do not ensure their responsible deployment.EPA, Transparency, GM Mosquitoes, Disease Control, Governancehttps://theconversation.com/genetically-modified-mosquitoes-could-be-released-in-florida-and-texas-beginning-this-summer-silver-bullet-or-jumping-the-gun-1397100
Kemp, L. et al. Point of View: Bioengineering horizon scan 2020. eLife 2020; 9:e54489, doi: 10.7554/eLife.54489. Feature Article 29 May, 2020. Download PDFPoint of View: Bioengineering horizon scan 2020Todd Kuiken2020Horizon scanning is intended to identify the opportunities and threats associated with technological, regulatory and social change. In 2017 some of the present authors conducted a horizon scan for bioengineering (Wintle et al., 2017). Here we report the results of a new horizon scan that is based on inputs from a larger and more international group of 38 participants. The final list of 20 issues includes topics spanning from the political (the regulation of genomic data, increased philanthropic funding and malicious uses of neurochemicals) to the environmental (crops for changing climates and agricultural gene drives). The early identification of such issues is relevant to researchers, policy-makers and the wider public.Genetics And Genomics, Bioengineering, Biotechnology, Horizon Scanning, Foresight, Human Biology And Medicinehttps://elifesciences.org/articles/5448910.7554/eLife.54489
Cummings CL, Kong WY, Orminski J (2020) A typology of beliefs and misperceptions about the influenza disease and vaccine among older adults in Singapore. PLoS ONE 15(5): e0232472. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0232472 Download PDFA typology of beliefs and misperceptions about the influenza disease and vaccine among older adults in SingaporeChristopher L. Cummings2020Access to the influenza vaccine pose little barriers in developed countries such as Singapore and vaccination against influenza is highly recommended for at-risk populations including older adults. However, vaccination rates are much lower than recommended despite the significant morbidity and mortality associated with the disease among this vulnerable population. Given timely goals to increase vaccine acceptance and uptake, we explored Singaporean older adults’ misperceptions about influenza disease and vaccine. Qualitative semi-structured interviews were conducted among 76 Singaporean adults aged 65 and above with no focus on a specific area in Singapore. Data were analyzed with grounded theory methods to understand participants’ attitudes, perceptions, and knowledge. We developed in vivo codes that reflect the verbiage used by participants and exhaustively catalogued themes through a constant comparison coding method. Focusing specifically on older adults’ misperceptions, seven main themes about influenza disease or vaccine emerged from our data analysis: familiarity with influenza, misperceptions about influenza, personal susceptibility to influenza, familiarity with the influenza vaccine, misperceptions about the influenza vaccine, misperceptions about influenza vaccine usage, and opinions about and barriers to influenza vaccine uptake. Notably, there is a lack of adequate knowledge and motivation in vaccinating against influenza among older adults in Singapore. Health communication needs to be more tailored toward older adults’ message processing systems and engage health professionals’ involvement in addressing the influenza disease and vaccine misperceptions identified in this study.Flu, Vaccines, Misperceptions, Public Engagement, Health Communicationhttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0232472&fbclid=IwAR0JPQkiZrZ4YORCF_hAipv4TqcwLXSLeRISIQtp02WWQkpkBfDc-7bFw8A10.1371/journal.pone.0232472
Kuzma, Jennifer, Khara D. Grieger, Zachary S. Brown, and Christopher L. Cummings. “Pandemics Call for Systems Approaches to Research and Funding.” Issues in Science and Technology (May 4, 2020) Download PDFPandemics Call for Systems Approaches to Research and FundingJennifer Kuzma, Khara Grieger, Christopher L. Cummings, Zack Brown2020National strategies must incorporate social as well as natural sciences.Coronavirus, COVID-19, Governance, Social Scienceshttps://issues.org/pandemics-call-for-systems-approaches/0
Jason A. Delborne, Adam E. Kokotovich & Jeantine E. Lunshof (2020) Social license and synthetic biology: the trouble with mining terms. Journal of Responsible Innovation. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2020.1738023. Published: 06 April 2020. Download PDFSocial license and synthetic biology: the trouble with mining termsJason Delborne, Adam Kokotovich2020In the wake of controversies over first-generation biotechnologies, the growing field of synthetic biology appears cognizant of the need to attend to the social, political, cultural, and ethical dimensions of innovation. Public engagement has emerged as an important means for attending to these dimensions. Here, we call attention to the problematic nature of one paradigm being drawn upon to conceptualize this public engagement for synthetic biology: social license to operate (SLO). After reviewing SLO’s emergence in the resource extraction context and the existing critiques of SLO, we examine its current use in the synthetic biology literature. We argue that an SLO-derived model of engagement is especially inadequate for synthetic biology due to unique challenges posed by synthetic biology and the limited conception of engagement provided by SLO. We conclude by discussing alternative public engagement paradigms and examples better suited to inform synthetic biology governance.Community And Stakeholder Engagement, Public Engagement, Responsible Research And Innovation, Social License To Operate, Synthetic Biologyhttps://doi.org/10.1080/23299460.2020.173802310.1080/23299460.2020.1738023
Adam E. Kokotovich, Jason A. Delborne, Johanna Elsensohn, and Hannah Burrack. Emerging Technologies for Invasive Insects: The Role of Engagement. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, XX(X), 2019, 1–14, doi: 10.1093/aesa/saz064 Special Collection. Published: 16 March 2020. Download PDFEmerging Technologies for Invasive Insects: The Role of EngagementAdam Kokotovich, Jason Delborne, Johanna Elsensohn, Hannah Burrack2020Emerging technologies have the potential to offer new applications for managing invasive insects. While scientific and technological advancements are vital to realizing this potential, the successful development and use of these applications will also largely depend on community and stakeholder engagement. To contribute to a relevant and rigorous envisioning of engagement for emerging technologies for invasive insects (ETII), we begin by reviewing key insights on engagement from three scholarly fields: invasive species management, responsible research and innovation, and ecological risk assessment. Across these fields we glean best practices for engagement for ETII: 1) pursue engagement across decision phases and sectors; 2) select context-appropriate participants and methods; and 3) recognize and navigate engagement-related tensions. We illustrate these best practices by describing an ongoing project that uses engagement to inform risk assessment and broader decision making on biotechnologies being developed to address the Spotted-wing Drosophila (Drosophila suzukii) invasive fruit fly. We describe completed and planned engagement activities designed to identify and prioritize potential adverse effects, benefits, management actions, and research actions of the proposed genetically engineered sterile male, gene drive, and RNAi biotechnologies. In the face of broadening calls for engagement on emerging technologies, this article provides theoretical and empirical insights that can guide future engagement for ETII.Responsible Research And Innovation, Ecological Risk Assessment, Invasive Species Management, Community And Stakeholder Engagement, Drosophila Suzukiihttps://academic.oup.com/aesa/advance-article/doi/10.1093/aesa/saz064/574832110.1093/aesa/saz064/5748321
Sarah A. Cash, Michael A. Robert, Marce D. Lorenzen, and Fred Gould. The impact of local population genetic background on the spread of the selfish element Medea‐1 in red flour beetles. Ecol Evol,2020; 10: 863– 874. doi: 10.1002/ece3.5946. Published: 19 December 2019. Download PDFThe impact of local population genetic background on the spread of the selfish element Medea‐1 in red flour beetlesFred Gould, Marce Lorenzen2019Selfish genetic elements have been found in the genomes of many species, yet our understanding of their evolutionary dynamics is only partially understood. A number of distinct selfish Medea elements are naturally present in many populations of the red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum). Although these Medea elements are predicted by models to increase in frequency within populations because any offspring of a Medea‐bearing mother that do not inherit at least one Medea allele will die, experiments demonstrating an increase in a naturally occurring Medea element are lacking. Our survey of the specific Medea element, M1, in the United States showed that it had a patchy geographic distribution. From the survey, it could not be determined if this distribution was caused by a slow process of M1 colonization of discrete populations or if some populations lacked M1 because they had genetic factors conferring resistance to the Medea mechanism. We show that populations with naturally low to intermediate M1 frequencies likely represent transient states during the process of Medea spread. Furthermore, we find no evidence that genetic factors are excluding M1 from US populations where the element is not presently found. We also show how a known suppressor of Medea can impair the increase of M1 in populations and discuss the implications of our findings for pest‐management applications of Medea elements.Natural Gene Drive, Maternal Effect, Medea, Red Flour Beetle, Selfish Genetic Elementhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ece3.594610.1002/ece3.5946
Sarah A. Cash, Marce D. Lorenzen, and Fred Gould. The distribution and spread of naturally occurring Medea selfish genetic elements in the United States. Ecol Evol, 2019; 9: 14407– 14416. doi: 10.1002/ece3.5876. Published: 27 November 2019. Download PDFThe distribution and spread of naturally occurring Medea selfish genetic elements in the United StatesFred Gould, Marce Lorenzen2019Selfish genetic elements (SGEs) are DNA sequences that are transmitted to viable offspring in greater than Mendelian frequencies. Medea SGEs occur naturally in some populations of red flour beetle (Tribolium castaneum) and are expected to increase in frequency within populations and spread among populations. The large‐scale U.S. distributions of Medea‐4 (M4) had been mapped based on samples from 1993 to 1995. We sampled beetles in 2011–2014 and show that the distribution of M4 in the United States is dynamic and has shifted southward. By using a genetic marker of Medea‐1 (M1), we found five unique geographic clusters with high and low M1 frequencies in a pattern not predicted by microsatellite‐based analysis of population structure. Our results indicate the absence of rigid barriers to Medea spread in the United States, so assessment of what factors have limited its current distribution requires further investigation. There is great interest in using synthetic SGEs, including synthetic Medea, to alter or suppress pest populations, but there is concern about unpredicted spread of these SGEs and potential for populations to become resistant to them. The finding of patchy distributions of Medea elements suggests that released synthetic SGEs cannot always be expected to spread uniformly, especially in target species with limited dispersal.Natural Gene Drive, Maternal Effect, Medea, Red Flour Beetle, Selfish Genetic Elementhttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1002/ece3.587610.1002/ece3.5876
Megan E. Serr, Rene X. Valdez, Kathleen S. Barnhill-Dilling, John Godwin, Todd Kuiken & Matthew Booker. Scenario analysis on the use of rodenticides and sex-biasing gene drives for the removal of invasive house mice on islands. Biological Invasions (2020) pp 1-14. doi: 10.1007/s10530-019-02192-6. Published: 02 January 2020.Scenario analysis on the use of rodenticides and sex-biasing gene drives for the removal of invasive house mice on islandsMegan Serr, Rene Valdez, Katie Barnhill-Dilling, John Godwin, Todd Kuiken, Matthew Booker2020Since the 1960s conservation efforts have focused on recovering island biodiversity by eradicating invasive rodents. These eradication campaigns have led to considerable conservation gains, particularly for nesting seabirds. However, eradications are complex and lengthy endeavors and are even more challenging when humans are co-inhabitants of the targeted island. Furthermore, the method of eradication matters and recent proposals to consider genetic technologies for rodent eradication require specific scrutiny. One such technology is the potential use of a gene drive for biasing offspring sex ratios in invasive house mice, Mus musculus, that would spread and prevent the production of one sex, allowing die-off from lack of reproduction and natural attrition. Practitioners can gain insight into the potential for adoption of this technology from examining stakeholder engagement. This paper uses scenario analysis to address the eradication of rodents on inhabited and uninhabited islands, by specifically comparing the traditional approach of using rodenticides with sex-biasing gene drives. Concurrently the International Union for Conservation of Nature is assessing the risks and value of gene drives in general for conservation. Hence, we make the case that the ethical challenges with the use of gene drive sex-biasing techniques and the effectiveness of this tool will rely as much on its public acceptance and its democratic use as the actual science used to construct the technology.Preserving Island Biodiversity, Rodent Eradications, Synthetic Biology, Stakeholder Engagement, Public Perceptionshttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-019-02192-610.1007/s10530-019-02192-6
Dalton R. George, Todd Kuiken, and Jason A. Delborne. Articulating ‘free, prior and informed consent’ (FPIC) for engineered gene drives. Proc. Royal Soc. B. Vol. 286, Issue 1917. Published: 18 December 2019. doi: 10.1098/rspb.2019.1484Articulating ‘free, prior and informed consent’ (FPIC) for engineered gene drivesDalton George, Todd Kuiken, Jason Delborne2019Recent statements by United Nations bodies point to free, prior and informed consent (FPIC) as a potential requirement in the development of engineered gene drive applications. As a concept developed in the context of protecting Indigenous rights to self-determination in land development scenarios, FPIC would need to be extended to apply to the context of ecological editing. Without an explicit framework of application, FPIC could be interpreted as a narrowly framed process of community consultation focused on the social implications of technology, and award little formal or advisory power in decision-making to Indigenous peoples and local communities. In this paper, we argue for an articulation of FPIC that attends to issues of transparency, iterative community-scale consent, and shared power through co-development among Indigenous peoples, local communities, researchers and technology developers. In realizing a comprehensive FPIC process, researchers and developers have an opportunity to incorporate enhanced participation and social guidance mechanisms into the design, development and implementation of engineered gene drive applications.Community Engagement, Indigenous Peoples, Responsible Research And Innovation, Convention On Biological Diversity, Public Engagement, Biodiversityhttp://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2019.148410.1098/rspb.2019.1484
Barnes, J., Pitts, E., Barnhill-Dilling, S., & Delborne, J.. (2019) Genetic Engineering and Society. In T. Pittinsky (Ed.), Science, Technology, and Society: New Perspectives and Directions (pp. 203-233). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. doi: 10.1017/9781316691489.009. Published: November 2019.Genetic Engineering and SocietyMegan Serr, Rene Valdez, Katie Barnhill-Dilling, John Godwin, Todd Kuiken, Matthew Booker2019Genetic engineering disrupts assumed distinctions between nature and culture, between human and nonhuman, and between the production of knowledge and the production of commercially viable products. As a result, this area of technological development continues to inspire science and technology studies (STS) researchers not only to rethink theoretical paradigms, but also to test and retest a variety of ways to intervene in science and society.Also referred to as genetic modification, genetic engineering involves inserting, deleting, or modifying an organism’s deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), ribonucleic acid (RNA), or proteins to change its characteristics, or traits (National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine [NASEM], 2016b). Genetically engineered organisms are forms of biotechnology, a broad category that encompasses a variety of ways of altering biological materials and processes to make them more useful for human purposes. Although the selection of desirable traits in living organisms dates at least to the invention of agriculture, contemporary genetic approaches are particularly indebted to Darwin’s (1859/2001) research on evolution and Mendel’s (1866) study of heredity (NASEM, 2016b).Genetic Engineering, Society, Public Engagementhttps://www.cambridge.org/core/books/science-technology-and-society/genetic-engineering-and-society/D88D66339C9D75EDD3B89F5BD316ED9410.1017/9781316691489.009
Trump, B. D., Cummings, C. L., Kuzma, J. & Linkov, I. (2020). Synthetic Biology 2020: Frontiers in Risk Analysis and Governance. Springer, Cham.doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-27264-7. ISBN: 978-3-030-27263-0. First online: 29 November 2019Synthetic Biology 2020: Frontiers in Risk Analysis and GovernanceJennifer Kuzma2019IntroductionSynthetic biology offers powerful remedies for some of the world’s most intractable problems, but these solutions are clouded by uncertainty and risk that few strategies are available to address. The incentives for continued development of this emerging technology are prodigious and obvious, and the public deserves assurances that all potential downsides are duly considered and minimized accordingly. Incorporating social science analysis within the innovation process may impose constraints, but its simultaneous support in making the end products more acceptable to society at large should be considered a worthy trade-offSynthetic Biology, Risk, Social Science, Policy, Governancehttps://link.springer.com/book/10.1007/978-3-030-27264-710.1007/978-3-030-27264-7
Zachary Brown, Mike Jones, John Mumford. (2019) Economic Principles and Concepts in Area-Wide Genetic Pest Management. Eds. Onstad, D. W., & Crain, P. in The Economics of Integrated Pest Management of Insects. (pp. 96-121) CABI. doi: 10.1079/9781786393678.0096Economic Principles and Concepts in Area-Wide Genetic Pest ManagementZack Brown, Michael S. Jones2019The objective of the article was to explore the key economic principles for the inclusion of genetically engineered insects within integrated pest management (IPM) programmes, discussing proposed examples with agriculture and health applications.Genetic Pest Management, Genetic Engineeringhttps://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/2019334201510.1079/9781786393678.0096
Porcari, A., Borsella, E., Benighaus, C., Grieger, K. et al. From risk perception to risk governance in nanotechnology: a multi-stakeholder study. Journal of Nanoparticle Research (2019) 21: 245. doi: 10.1007/s11051-019-4689-9. Published: 21 November 2019. Download PDFFrom risk perception to risk governance in nanotechnology: a multi-stakeholder study.Khara Grieger2019Nanotechnology is widely used in several industrial and consumer sectors and has the potential to grow further and expand globally. An exploration of stakeholder (SH)’s perceptions is essential to ensuring that robust risk governance processes are in place for nanotechnology and nano-related products. In response, numerous studies have been conducted to investigate SH’s perceptions of nanotechnology and nano-related products over the past 15 years. To build on this work and to capture current perceptions across a wide panel of SHs, we conducted a multi-national and cross-sectoral SH study of awareness, perceptions and opinions regarding the use and potential impact on society and the environment of nanomaterials (NMs) and nano-related products, and SH’s expectations about risk governance. The study was conducted using both quantitative and qualitative inquiries and targeted more than 3000 SHs across different sectors in a total of 15 countries. Results showed a tendency towards more convergence of opinions amongst all the relevant SHs and the public respondents than in past studies. There was consensus on the crucial importance of having unbiased, scientific and trustable information regarding the potential impacts of NMs and nano-related products on the environment, health and safety. SHs were interested in having more internationally harmonised and robust regulation for NMs and nano-related products; improved scientific evidence on nanomaterial hazards, exposures and effects; as well as specific guidance on the safe use of NMs. Overall, this work provides an updated scenario of SHs’ perceptions regarding nanotechnology and nano-related products, underscoring the importance of including SH needs in effective risk governance strategies.Nanomaterials, Nano-Related Products, Risk Assessment, Risk Management, Risk Communication, Decision Analysis, Risk-Benefit Of Nanomaterials, Societal Implicationshttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11051-019-4689-910.1007/s11051-019-4689-9
John Godwin, Megan Serr, S. Kathleen Barnhill-Dilling , Dimitri V. Blondel, Peter R. Brown, Karl Campbell, Jason Delborne, Alun L. Lloyd , et al. Rodent gene drives for conservation: opportunities and data needs. Proceedings of the Royal Society B, Volume 286, Issue 1914, doi: 10.1098/rspb.2019.1606. Published: 06 November 2019. Download PDFRodent gene drives for conservation: opportunities and data needsJohn Godwin, Megan Serr, Katie Barnhill-Dilling, Jason Delborne, Alun Lloyd2019Invasive rodents impact biodiversity, human health and food security worldwide. The biodiversity impacts are particularly significant on islands, which are the primary sites of vertebrate extinctions and where we are reaching the limits of current control technologies. Gene drives may represent an effective approach to this challenge, but knowledge gaps remain in a number of areas. This paper is focused on what is currently known about natural and developing synthetic gene drive systems in mice, some key areas where key knowledge gaps exist, findings in a variety of disciplines relevant to those gaps and a brief consideration of how engagement at the regulatory, stakeholder and community levels can accompany and contribute to this effort. Our primary species focus is the house mouse, Mus musculus, as a genetic model system that is also an important invasive pest. Our primary application focus is the development of gene drive systems intended to reduce reproduction and potentially eliminate invasive rodents from islands. Gene drive technologies in rodents have the potential to produce significant benefits for biodiversity conservation, human health and food security. A broad-based, multidisciplinary approach is necessary to assess this potential in a transparent, effective and responsible manner.Rodent, Biodiversity, Gene Drive, Island, Mice, Genetics, Behaviourhttps://royalsocietypublishing.org/doi/10.1098/rspb.2019.160610.1098/rspb.2019.1606
Khara Grieger, Jacob L. Jones, Steffen Foss Hansen, Christine Ogilvie Hendren, Keld Alstrup Jensen, Jennifer Kuzma & Anders Baun . Best practices from nano-risk analysis relevant for other emerging technologies. Nature Nanotechnology, 14, pages 998–1001(2019) doi: 10.1038/s41565-019-0572-1. Published: 06 November 2019. Download PDFBest practices from nano-risk analysis relevant for other emerging technologiesKhara Grieger2019The experiences gained from the past 15 years of nanomaterial risk analysis may be useful for the risk analysis efforts of other emerging technologies.Environmental Health And Safety Issues, Research Managementhttps://rdcu.be/bWvQE10.1038/s41565-019-0572-1
S. Kathleen Barnhill-Dilling, Louie Rivers & Jason A. Delborne (2019) Rooted in Recognition: Indigenous Environmental Justice and the Genetically Engineered American Chestnut Tree. Society & Natural Resources, doi: 10.1080/08941920.2019.1685145. Published: 05 November 2019. Download PDFRooted in Recognition: Indigenous Environmental Justice and the Genetically Engineered American Chestnut TreeKatie Barnhill-Dilling, Louie Rivers, Jason Delborne2019The restoration plan for the American chestnut tree includes the potential wild release of a genetically engineered tree in close proximity to the sovereign Haudenosaunee communities of Central and Upstate New York. As such, inclusive deliberative frameworks are needed to consider the implications for these communities. Indigenous environmental justice highlights the importance of recognizing tribal sovereignty and Indigenous worldviews as foundational to more just environmental governance. This paper examines how the case of genetically engineered American chestnut tree highlights the importance of recognizing tribal sovereignty and Indigenous worldviews in considering a GE organism for species restoration.Chestnut Restoration, Genetic Engineering, Indigenous Environmental Justicehttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/08941920.2019.168514510.1080/08941920.2019.1685145
Sudweeks, J., Hollingsworth, B., Blondel, D.V., Lloyd, A.L. et al.. Locally Fixed Alleles: A method to localize gene drive to island populations. Nature Scientific Reports, 9, Article number: 15821 (2019) doi: 10.1038/s41598-019-51994-0. Published: 01 November 2019. Download PDFLocally Fixed Alleles: A method to localize gene drive to island populationsJayce Sudweeks, John Godwin, J. Royden Saah, Michael Vella, Fred Gould, Alun Lloyd2019Invasive species pose a major threat to biodiversity on islands. While successes have been achieved using traditional removal methods, such as toxicants aimed at rodents, these approaches have limitations and various off-target effects on island ecosystems. Gene drive technologies designed to eliminate a population provide an alternative approach, but the potential for drive-bearing individuals to escape from the target release area and impact populations elsewhere is a major concern. Here we propose the “Locally Fixed Alleles” approach as a novel means for localizing elimination by a drive to an island population that exhibits significant genetic isolation from neighboring populations.Ecological Modeling, Evolutionary Ecology, Evolutionary Geneticshttps://rdcu.be/bWvRL10.1038/s41598-019-51994-0
Gregory A Backus, Jason A Delborne. Threshold-Dependent Gene Drives in the Wild: Spread, Controllability, and Ecological Uncertainty. BioScience, biz098, doi: 10.1093/biosci/biz098. Published: 18 September 2019. Download PDFThreshold-Dependent Gene Drives in the Wild: Spread, Controllability, and Ecological UncertaintyGregory Backus, Jason Delborne2019Gene drive technology could allow the intentional spread of a desired gene throughout an entire wild population in relatively few generations. However, there are major concerns that gene drives could either fail to spread or spread without restraint beyond the targeted population. One potential solution is to use more localized threshold-dependent drives, which only spread when they are released in a population above a critical frequency. However, under certain conditions, small changes in gene drive fitness could lead to divergent outcomes in spreading behavior. In the face of ecological uncertainty, the inability to estimate gene drive fitness in a real-world context could prove problematic because gene drives designed to be localized could spread to fixation in neighboring populations if ecological conditions unexpectedly favor the gene drive. This perspective offers guidance to developers and managers because navigating gene drive spread and controllability could be risky without detailed knowledge of ecological contexts.Gene Drive, Ecology, Conservation, Uncertainty, Modeling, Biotechnologyhttps://academic.oup.com/bioscience/advance-article/doi/10.1093/biosci/biz098/555962110.1093/biosci/biz098/5559621
Michael S. Jones, Jason. A. Delborne, Johanna Elsensohn, Paul D. Mitchell, Zachary S. Brown. Does the U.S. public support using gene drives in agriculture? And what do they want to know?. Science Advances 11 Sep 2019; Vol. 5, no. 9, eaau8462. doi: 10.1126/sciadv.aau8462. Download PDFDoes the U.S. public support using gene drives in agriculture? And what do they want to know?Michael S. Jones, Jason Delborne, Johanna Elsensohn, Zack Brown2019Gene drive development is progressing more rapidly than our understanding of public values toward these technologies. We analyze a statistically representative survey (n = 1018) of U.S. adult attitudes toward agricultural gene drives. When informed about potential risks, benefits, and two previously researched applications, respondents’ support/opposition depends heavily (+22%/−19%) on whether spread of drives can be limited, non-native versus native species are targeted (+12%/−9%), or the drive replaces versus suppresses target species (±2%). The one-fifth of respondents seeking out non–GMO–labeled food are more likely to oppose drives, although their support exceeds opposition for limited applications. Over 62% trust U.S. universities and the Department of Agriculture to research gene drives, with the private sector and Department of Defense viewed as more untrustworthy. Uncertain human health and ecological effects are the public’s most important concerns to resolve. These findings can inform responsible innovation in gene drive development and risk assessment.Gene Drive, Agricultural Biotechnology, Public Engagement, Survey, Public Opinionhttps://advances.sciencemag.org/content/5/9/eaau846210.1126/sciadv.aau8462
Ninell P. Mortensen, Leah M. Johnson, Khara D. Grieger, Jeffrey L. Ambroso, Timothy R. Fennell. Biological Interactions between Nanomaterials and Placental Development and Function Following Oral Exposure. Reproductive Toxicology - Published Online August 2019. ISSN 0890-6238, doi: 10.1016/j.reprotox.2019.08.016.Biological Interactions between Nanomaterials and Placental Development and Function Following Oral ExposureKhara Grieger2019We summarize the literature involving the deposition of nanomaterials within the placenta following oral exposure and the biological interactions between nanomaterials and placental development and function. The review focuses on the oral exposure of metal and metal oxide engineered nanomaterials (ENMs), carbon-based ENMs, and nanoplastics in animal models, with a minor discussion of intravenous injections. Although the literature suggests that the placenta is an efficient barrier in preventing nanomaterials from reaching the fetus, nanomaterials that accumulate in the placenta may interfere with its development and function. Furthermore, some studies have demonstrated a decrease in placental weight and association with adverse fetal health outcomes following oral exposure to nanomaterials. Since nanomaterials are increasingly used in food, food packaging, and have been discovered in drinking water, the risk for adverse impacts on placental development and functions, with secondary effects on embryo-fetal development, following unintentional maternal ingestion of nanomaterials requires further investigation.Nanoparticles, Nano-Toxicology, Placental Functionhttp://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S089062381830670110.1016/j.reprotox.2019.08.016
Barnes, J.C. and Delborne, J.A. (2019) Rethinking restoration targets for American chestnut using species distribution modeling. Biodiversity and Conservation, FirstOnline doi: 10.1007/s10531-019-01814-8. Rethinking restoration targets for American chestnut using species distribution modelingJessica Cavin Barnes, Jason Delborne2019Given the scale and speed of contemporary environmental changes, intensive conservation interventions are increasingly being proposed that would assist the evolution of adaptive traits in threatened species. The ambition of these projects is tempered by a number of concerns, including the potential maladaptation of manipulated organisms for contemporary and future climatic conditions in their historical ranges. Following the guidelines of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature, we use a species distribution model (SDM) to consider the potential impact of climate change on the distribution and quantity of suitable habitat for American chestnut (Castanea dentata), a functionally extinct forest species that has been the focus of various restoration efforts for over 100 years. Consistent with other SDMs for North American trees, our model shows contraction of climatically suitable habitat for American chestnut within the species’ historical range and the expansion of climatically suitable habitat in regions to the north of it by 2080. These broad changes have significant implications for restoration practice. In particular, they highlight the importance of germplasm conservation, local adaptation, and addressing knowledge gaps about the interspecific interactions of American chestnut. More generally, this model demonstrates that the goals of assisted evolution projects, which often aim to maintain species in their native ranges, need to account for the uncertainty and novelty of future environmental conditions.Environmental Conservation, Genetic Engineering, Forestry, Forest Biotechnology, Native Plantshttps://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10531-019-01814-810.1007/s10531-019-01814-8.
Hung-En Lai, Caoimhe Canavan, Loren Cameron, Simon Moore, Monika Danchenko, Todd Kuiken, et. al. (2019) Synthetic Biology and the United Nations. Trends in Biotechnology. ISSN 0167-7799, doi: 10.1016/j.tibtech.2019.05.011. Download PDFSynthetic Biology and the United NationsTodd Kuiken2019Synthetic biology is a rapidly emerging interdisciplinary field of science and engineering that aims to redesign living systems through reprogramming genetic information. The field has catalysed global debate among policymakers and publics. Here we describe how synthetic biology relates to these international deliberations, particularly the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD).Synthetic Biology, United Nations, Regulatory Policy, Biodiversity, Conservation, International Treatyhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S016777991930133710.1016/j.tibtech.2019.05.011.
Mahmud Farooque, S. Kathleen Barnhill-Dilling, Julie Shapiro, and Jason Delborne. “Exploring Stakeholder Perspectives on the Development of a Gene Drive Mouse for Biodiversity Protection on Islands” Workshop Report. June 2019. Available online at http://go.ncsu.edu/ges-gene-drive-workshop. Download PDFWorkshop Report for “Exploring Stakeholder Perspectives on the Development of a Gene Drive Mouse for Biodiversity Protection on Islands”Jason Delborne, Katie Barnhill-Dilling2019Island Biodiversity, Gene Drive, Stakeholder Engagement, Species Conservationhttps://research.ncsu.edu/ges/research/biodiversity-and-gene-drive-mice/0
Genetic frontiers for conservation : an assessment of synthetic biology and biodiversity conservation: synthesis and key messages. IUCN Task Force on Synthetic Biology and Biodiversity Conservation. 2019. doi: 10.2305/IUCN.CH.2019.04.en. Download PDFGenetic frontiers for conservation: An assessment of synthetic biology and biodiversity conservationTodd Kuiken, Jason Delborne, Adam Kokotovich2019In recent years synthetic biology has emerged as a suite of techniques and technologies that enable humans to read, interpret, modify, design and manufacture DNA in order to rapidly influence the forms and functions of cells and organisms, with the potential to reach whole species and ecosystems. As synthetic biology continues to evolve, new tools emerge, novel applications are proposed, and basic research is applied. This assessment is one part of IUCN’s effort to provide recommendations and guidance regarding the potential positive and negative impacts of synthetic biology on biodiversity conservation; it comprises a full assessment and a short synthesis report. Synthetic Biology, Biodiversity Conservation, Genetic Resources, IUCN, International Union For Conservation Of Naturehttps://portals.iucn.org/library/node/4840910.2305/IUCN.CH.2019.04.en.
Sumit Dhole, Alun L. Lloyd, and Fred Gould. (2020) Gene drive dynamics in natural populations: The importance of density-dependence, space and sex. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics. [Pre-print] submitted May 4, 2020 201901886. doi: 10.1146/annurev-ecolsys-031120-101013. DownloadGene drive dynamics in natural populations: The importance of density-dependence, space and sexFred Gould, Sumit Dhole, Alun Lloyd2019The spread of synthetic gene drives is often discussed in the context of panmictic populations connected by gene flow and described with simple deterministic models. Under such assumptions, an entire species could be altered by releasing a single individual carrying an invasive gene drive, such as a standard homing drive. While this remains a theoretical possibility, gene drive spread in natural populations is more complex and merits a more realistic assessment. The fate of any gene drive released in a population would be inextricably linked to the ecology of the population. Given the uncertainty often involved in ecological assessment of natural populations, understanding the sensitivity of gene drive spread to important ecological factors is critical. Here we review how different forms of density-dependence, spatial heterogeneity and mating behaviors can impact the spread of self-sustaining gene drives. We highlight specific aspects of gene drive dynamics and the target populations that need further research.Gene Drive, Models, Population Ecology, Genetic Pest Management, Underdominance, CRISPR, Spatial Dynamics, Density-Dependence, Population Alterationhttps://arxiv.org/abs/2005.0183810.1146/annurev-ecolsys-031120-101013
Isigonis P, Hristozov D, Benighaus C, Giubilato E, Grieger K, Pizzol L, Semenzin E, Linkov I, Zabeo A, Marcomini A. Risk Governance of Nanomaterials: Review of Criteria and Tools for Risk Communication, Evaluation, and Mitigation. Nanomaterials. 2019; 9(5):696. doi: 10.3390/nano9050696 Download PDFRisk Governance of Nanomaterials: Review of Criteria and Tools for Risk Communication, Evaluation, and MitigationKhara Grieger2019Nanotechnologies have been increasingly used in industrial applications and consumer products across several sectors, including construction, transportation, energy, and healthcare. The widespread application of these technologies has raised concerns regarding their environmental, health, societal, and economic impacts. This has led to the investment of enormous resources in Europe and beyond into the development of tools to facilitate the risk assessment and management of nanomaterials, and to inform more robust risk governance process. In this context, several risk governance frameworks have been developed. In our study, we present and review those, and identify a set of criteria and tools for risk evaluation, mitigation, and communication, the implementation of which can inform better risk management decision-making by various stakeholders from e.g., industry, regulators, and the civil society. Based on our analysis, we recommend specific methods from decision science and information technologies that can improve the existing risk governance tools so that they can communicate, evaluate, and mitigate risks more transparently, taking stakeholder perspectives and expert opinion into account, and considering all relevant criteria in establishing the risk-benefit balance of these emerging technologies to enable more robust decisions about the governance of their risks.Nanomaterials, Nanotechnology, Risk Analysis, Tools, Communication, Stakeholdershttps://www.mdpi.com/2079-4991/9/5/69610.3390/nano9050696
Khara D. Grieger, Tyler Felgenhauer, Ortwin Renn, Jonathan Wiener, Mark Borsuk (2019). Emerging risk governance for stratospheric aerosol injection as a climate management technology. Environment Systems and Decisions. doi: 10.1007/s10669-019-09730-6. DownloadEmerging risk governance for stratospheric aerosol injection as a climate management technologyKhara Grieger2019Stratospheric aerosol injection (SAI) as a solar radiation management (SRM) technology may provide a cost-effective means of avoiding some of the worst impacts of climate change, being perhaps orders of magnitude less expensive than greenhouse gas emissions mitigation. At the same time, SAI technologies have deeply uncertain economic and environmental impacts and complex ethical, legal, political, and international relations ramifications. Robust governance strategies are needed to manage the many potential benefits, risks, and uncertainties related to SAI. This perspective reviews the International Risk Governance Council (IRGC)’s guidelines for emerging risk governance (ERG) as an approach for responsible consideration of SAI, given the IRGC’s experience in governing other more conventional risks. We examine how the five steps of the IRGC’s ERG guidelines would address the complex, uncertain, and ambiguous risks presented by SAI. Diverse risks are identified in Step 1, scenarios to amplify or dissipate the risks are identified in Step 2, and applicable risk management options identified in Step 3. Steps 4 and 5 involve implementation and review by risk managers within an established organization. For full adoption and promulgation of the IRGC’s ERG guidelines, an international consortium or governing body (or set of bodies) should be tasked with governance and oversight. This Perspective provides a first step at reviewing the risk governance tasks that such a body would undertake and contributes to the growing literature on best practices for SRM governance.Risk Governance, Climate Engineering, Stratospheric Aerosolshttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2019.159114510.1007/s10669-019-09730-6.
Millett, P., Binz, T., Evans, S. W., Kuiken, T., et al (2019). Developing a Comprehensive, Adaptive, and International Biosafety and Biosecurity Program for Advanced Biotechnology: The iGEM Experience. Applied Biosafety. doi: 10.1177/1535676019838075 Download PDFDeveloping a Comprehensive, Adaptive, and International Biosafety and Biosecurity Program for Advanced Biotechnology: The iGEM ExperienceTodd Kuiken2019Introduction: The international synthetic biology competition iGEM (formally known as the international Genetically Engineered Machines competition) has a dedicated biosafety and biosecurity program.Method: A review of specific elements of the program and a series of concrete examples illustrate how experiences in implementing the program have helped improved policy, including an increasing diversity of sources for genetic parts and organisms, keeping pace with technical developments, considering pathways toward future environmental release, addressing antimicrobial resistance, and testing the efficacy of current biosecurity arrangements.Results: iGEM’s program is forward-leaning, in that it addresses both traditional (pathogen-based) and emerging risks both in terms of new technologies and new risks. It is integrated into the technical work of the competition—with clearly described roles and responsibilities for all members of the community. It operates throughout the life cycle of projects—from project design to future application. It makes use of specific tools to gather and review biosafety and biosecurity information, making it easier for those planning and conducting science and engineering to recognize potential risks and match them with appropriate risk management approaches, as well as for specialists to review this information to identify gaps and strengthen plans.Discussion: Integrating an increasingly adaptive risk management approach has allowed iGEM’s biosafety and biosecurity program to become comprehensive, be cross-cutting, and cover the competition’s life cycle.Synthetic Biology, Biological Engineering, Biotechnology, Adaptive Biosafety, IGEM, Genetic Engineeringhttps://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/153567601983807510.1177/1535676019838075
Rene X. Valdez, Jennifer Kuzma, Christopher L. Cummings & M. Nils Peterson (2019) Anticipating risks, governance needs, and public perceptions of de-extinction. Journal of Responsible Innovation. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2019.1591145. DownloadAnticipating risks, governance needs, and public perceptions of de-extinctionRene Valdez, Jennifer Kuzma2019Advances in biotechnology may allow for de-extinction. Potential impacts of de-extinct species remain uncertain; they may improve ecosystem function, or hinder conservation efforts and damage socio-ecological systems. To better anticipate de-extinction's outcomes, ethical dilemmas, and governance needs, we surveyed experts from multiple disciplinary backgrounds. We applied a mixed-method approach to our analysis, integrating quantitative responses of perceived outcomes with qualitative responses, to clarify and provide context. Overall, respondents indicated de-extinction was more likely to induce hazards, not benefits. Reasons for this viewpoint included a ‘moral hazard’ argument, suggesting conservation policies could be undermined if society perceives that species need less protection because they can be revived later. Pessimistic views of de-extinction were linked to concerns about unclear development paths. Experts believed the public might be skeptical about de-extinction. Our results suggest future de-extinction efforts may benefit from collaborative efforts to clarify hazards and explore salient concerns among the engaged public.De-Extinction, Governance, Environmental Risk, Moral Risk, Technological Pessimismhttps://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2019.159114510.1080/23299460.2019.1591145.
Carrière, Y., Brown, Z.S., Downes, S.J. et al (2019). Governing evolution: A socioecological comparison of resistance management for insecticidal transgenic Bt crops among four countries. Ambio. doi: 10.1007/s13280-019-01167-0 Download PDFGoverning evolution: A socioecological comparison of resistance management for insecticidal transgenic Bt crops among four countriesZack Brown2019Cooperative management of pest susceptibility to transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) crops is pursued worldwide in a variety of forms and to varying degrees of success depending on context. We examine this context using a comparative socioecological analysis of resistance management in Australia, Brazil, India, and the United States. We find that a shared understanding of resistance risks among government regulators, growers, and other actors is critical for effective governance. Furthermore, monitoring of grower compliance with resistance management requirements, surveillance of resistance, and mechanisms to support rapid implementation of remedial actions are essential to achieve desirable outcomes. Mandated resistance management measures, strong coordination between actors, and direct linkages between the group that appraises resistance risks and growers also appear to enhance prospects for effective governance. Our analysis highlights factors that could improve current governance systems and inform other initiatives to conserve susceptibility as a contribution to the cause of public good.Bt Crops, Resistance Management, Governance, Transgenic Crops, Insecticidehttps://doi.org/10.1007/s13280-019-01167-010.1007/s13280-019-01167-0
Fred Gould, Sumit Dhole, and Alun L. Lloyd. Pest management by genetic addiction. Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences Mar 2019, 201901886. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1901886116. DownloadPest Management by Genetic AddictionFred Gould, Sumit Dhole, Alun Lloyd2019Genetic Engineering, Genetic Pest Management, National Academies, Gene Drives, Medea, Crispr Cas-9https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/03/14/190188611610.1073/pnas.1901886116.
Campbell, K. J., Saah, J. R., Brown, P. R., Godwin, J., Gould, F., Howald, G. R., Piaggio, A., Thomas, P., Tompkins, D. M., Threadgill, D., Delborne, J., Kanavy, D. M., Kuiken, T., Packard, H., Serr, M. & Shiels, A. (2019) A potential new tool for the toolbox: Assessing gene drives for eradicating invasive rodent populations. In: Island invasives: Scaling up to meet the challenge, eds. C. R. Veitch, M. N. Clout, A. R. Martin, J. C. Russell & C. J. West, pp. 6-14. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. DownloadA potential new tool for the toolbox: Assessing gene drives for eradicating invasive rodent populationsJ. Royden Saah, John Godwin, Fred Gould, Jason Delborne, Todd Kuiken, Megan Serr2019The papers in this volume were, with a few exceptions, presented at the third Island Invasives conference, held in Dundee, Scotland in July 2017. The papers demonstrate up-scaling in several aspects of eradication operations – not least in ambition, land area, operational size, global reach and of course financial cost. In the space of a few decades, the size of islands treated for invasive species has increased by five orders of magnitude – from a few hectares to over 100,000 ha or 1,000 km2. Meanwhile, the diversity of species being tackled has increased, as has the range of countries now actively carrying out island restoration work. Inspired by pioneers from New Zealand and Australia, principally, today the movement has spread to islands in all oceans and off all continents. This expansion has been informed by, and has in turn produced, growing experience in all aspects of this field, from non-target impacts to ecological responses to factors affecting eradication success. A major aim of publishing these Proceedings is to inform people who are, or will in the future be, planning new projects to free islands of invasive species. Regardless of its location or the target species involved, each successive operation builds on the experience of those who have gone before, and the papers in this volume represent an invaluable wealth of such experience.Invasive Species, Invasive Species Eradication, Islands, Species Management, Biological Diversity, Biological Invasions, Case Studies, Proceedings, IUCN, International Union For Conservation Of Naturehttps://portals.iucn.org/library/node/483580
Serr, M., Heard, N. & Godwin, J. (2019) Towards a genetic approach to invasive rodent eradications: assessing reproductive competitiveness between wild and laboratory mice. In: Island invasives: Scaling up to meet the challenge, eds. C. R. Veitch, M. N. Clout, A. R. Martin, J. C. Russell & C. J. West, pp. 64-70. Gland, Switzerland: International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources. DownloadTowards a genetic approach to invasive rodent eradications: assessing reproductive competitiveness between wild and laboratory miceMegan Serr, John Godwin2019House mice are significant invasive pests, particularly on islands without native mammalian predators. As part of a multi-institutional project aimed at suppressing invasive mouse populations on islands, we aim to create heavily male-biased sex ratios with the goal of causing the populations to crash. Effective implementation of this approach will depend on engineered F1 wild-lab males being effective secondary invaders that can mate successfully. As a first step in assessing this possibility, we are characterising genetic and behavioural diff erences between Mus musculus strains in terms of mating and fecundity using wild house mice derived from an invasive population on the Farallon Islands (MmF), a laboratory strain C57BL/6/129 (tw2), and F1 wild-lab off spring. Mice with the ‘t allele’ (tw2) have a naturally occurring gene drive system. To assess fertility in F1 wild-lab crosses, tw2 males were paired with wild-derived females from the Farallon Islands (MmF). Results of these matings indicate litter sizes are comparable but that weaned pup and adult wild-lab mice are heavier in mass. Next, we initiated tests of male competitiveness using larger (3 m2) enclosures with enrichment. We introduced both an MmF and a tw2-bearing male to two MmF females to assess mating outcomes. Preliminary results of these experiments show none of the off spring carried the t-allele. However, performing the same experiment with F1 wildlab males instead of a full lab background resulted in 70% of off spring carrying the tw2 allele. This indicates that F1 wildlab males may be able to successfully compete and secondarily invade. It will be important in subsequent experiments to determine what characteristics contribute to secondary invasion success. More generally, a better understanding of characteristics contributing to overall success in increasingly complex and naturalistic environments will be critical in determining the potential of a gene drive-based eradication approach for invasive mice on islands. Competition, Gene Drive, Invasive Rodents, Reproductive Fitness, Secondary Invasionhttps://portals.iucn.org/library/node/483580
Jennifer Kuzma (2019). Procedurally Robust Risk Assessment Framework for Novel Genetically Engineered Organisms and Gene Drives. Regulation and Governance doi: 10.1111/rego.12245. DownloadProcedurally Robust Risk Assessment Framework for Novel Genetically Engineered Organisms and Gene DrivesJennifer Kuzma2019Gene Drive, Gene Editing, GMO, Governance, Risk Analysishttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/rego.1224510.1111/rego.12245.
S. Kathleen Barnhill-Dilling, Megan Serr, Dimitri V. Blondel and John Godwin(2019). Sustainability as a Framework for Considering Gene Drive Mice for Invasive Rodent Eradication. Sustainability. doi: 10.3390/su11051334 DownloadSustainability as a Framework for Considering Gene Drive Mice for Invasive Rodent EradicationKatie Barnhill-Dilling, Megan Serr, John Godwin2019https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/11/5/133410.3390/su11051334
Jason Delborne, Julie Shapiro, Mahmud Farooque, Tyler Ford, Dalton George, and Sonia Dermer. "Exploring Stakeholder Perspectives on the Development of a Gene Drive Mouse for Biodiversity Protection on Islands." Summary Report of Stakeholder Interviews. February 2019. Available online at https://go.ncsu.edu/ges-gene-drive-landscape. Download PDFExploring Stakeholder Perspectives on the Development of a Gene Drive Mouse for Biodiversity Protection on IslandsJason Delborne, Dalton George2019https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/2019/02/report-gene-drive-landscape/0
Valdez, R. X., Peterson, M. N., Pitts, E. A., & Delborne, J. A. (2019). International news media framing of invasive rodent eradications. Biological Invasions, First Online. doi: 10.1007/s10530-018-01911-9 DownloadInternational news media framing of invasive rodent eradicationsRene Valdez, Elizabeth Pitts, Jason Delborne2019https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320718315052?dgcid=author10.1007/s10530-018-01911-9
S. Kathleen Barnhill-Dilling, Jason A. Delborne. The genetically engineered American chestnut tree as opportunity for reciprocal restoration in Haudenosaunee communities Biological Conservation, Volume 232, 2019, Pages 1-7 doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2019.01.018 DownloadThe genetically engineered American chestnut tree as opportunity for reciprocal restoration in Haudenosaunee communitiesKatie Barnhill-Dilling, Jason Delborne2019https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0006320718315052?dgcid=author10.1016/j.biocon.2019.01.018
Dominique Brossard, Pam Belluck, Fred Gould, Christopher D. Wirz. Promises and Perils of Gene Drives: Navigating the Communication of Complex, Post-Normal Science Proceedings of the National Academies of Sciences. doi: 10.1073/pnas.1805874115 DownloadPromises and Perils of Gene Drives: Navigating the Communication of Complex, Post-Normal ScienceFred Gould2019https://www.pnas.org/content/early/2019/01/11/180587411510.1073/pnas.1805874115
National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2019. Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and Considerations. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi:10.17226/25221. Download Report and HighlightsReport: Forest Health and Biotechnology: Possibilities and ConsiderationsJason Delborne2019https://www.nap.edu/catalog/25221/forest-health-and-biotechnology-possibilities-and-considerations10.17226/25221.
Kuzma, Jennifer. Regulating Gene-Edited Crops. Issues in Science and Technology 35, no. 1 (Fall 2018). pp. 80-85. https://issues.org/regulating-gene-edited-crops. DownloadRegulating Gene-Edited CropsJennifer Kuzma2018https://issues.org/regulating-gene-edited-crops/0
S. F. Ryan, N. L. Adamson, A. Aktipis, L. K. Andersen, R. Austin..., J. A. Delborne, et. al. (2018). The role of citizen science in addressing grand challenges in food and agriculture research. Proc. R. Soc. B 2018 285 20181977; DOI: 10.1098/rspb.2018.1977. Published 21 November 2018. DownloadThe role of citizen science in addressing grand challenges in food and agriculture researchJason Delborne2018http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/285/1891/2018197710.1098/rspb.2018.1977.
Natalie Kofler, James P. Collins, Jennifer Kuzma, Emma Marris, Kevin Esvelt, Michael Paul Nelson, et al. (2018). Editing nature: Local roots of global governance - Environmental gene editing demands collective oversight. Science 02 Nov 2018: Vol. 362, Issue 6414, pp. 527-529. DOI: 10.1126/science.aat4612. DownloadEditing nature: Local roots of global governanceJennifer Kuzma2018http://science.sciencemag.org/content/362/6414/52710.1126/science.aat4612.
Jason Delborne, Adam Kokotovich, S. Kathleen Barnhill-Dilling (2018). Engaging community with humility. Science 02 Nov 2018: Vol. 362, Issue 6414, pp. 532-33. DOI: 10.1126/science.aav4987. DownloadEngaging community with humilityJason Delborne, Adam Kokotovich, Katie Barnhill-Dilling2018http://science.sciencemag.org/content/362/6414/532.210.1126/science.aav4987.
Dominic D Reisig, Ryan Kurtz; Bt Resistance Implications for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Insecticide Resistance Management in the United States, Environmental Entomology, nvy142, DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvy142 DownloadBt Resistance Implications for Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Insecticide Resistance Management in the United StatesDominic Reisig2018https://academic.oup.com/ee/advance-article/doi/10.1093/ee/nvy142/509693710.1093/ee/nvy142
Delborne, J.A., Binder, A.R., Rivers, L., Barnes, J.C., Barnhill-Dilling, S.K., George, D., Kokotovich, A., and Sudweeks, J. (2018). Biotechnology, the American Chestnut Tree, and Public Engagement (Workshop Report). Genetic Engineering and Society Center, North Carolina State University. DownloadBiotechnology, the American Chestnut Tree, and Public Engagement (Workshop Report)Jason Delborne, Andrew Binder, Louie Rivers, Jessica Cavin Barnes, Katie Barnhill-Dilling, Dalton George, Adam Kokotovich, Jayce Sudweeks2018http://go.ncsu.edu/ges-chestnut-report0
Jennifer Kuzma and Pat Roberts (2018). Cataloguing the barriers facing RRI in innovation pathways: a response to the dilemma of societal alignment. Journal of Responsible Innovation, DOI: 10.1080/23299460.2018.1511329. DownloadCataloguing the barriers facing RRI in innovation pathways: a response to the dilemma of societal alignmentJennifer Kuzma, Pat Roberts2018https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2018.151132910.1080/23299460.2018.1511329.
Welch, Eric and Bagley, Margo A. and Kuiken, Todd and Louafi, Selim, Potential Implications of New Synthetic Biology and Genomic Research Trajectories on the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (October 1, 2017). Emory Legal Studies Research Paper. Available at SSRN https://ssrn.com/abstract=3173781 or DownloadPotential Implications of New Synthetic Biology and Genomic Research Trajectories on the International Treaty for Plant Genetic Resources for Food and AgricultureTodd Kuiken2017https://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=31737810
Zachary S. Brown (2018) Introduction. Ed. Zachary S. Brown, Lucy Carter, and Fred Gould. An Introduction to the Proceedings of the Environmental Release of Engineered Pests: Building an International Governance Framework. BMC Proceedings 2018 12 (Suppl 8):10. doi: 10.1186/s12919-018-0105-1. DownloadAn Introduction to the Proceedings of the Environmental Release of Engineered Pests: Building an International Governance FrameworkZack Brown, Fred Gould2018https://bmcproc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12919-018-0105-110.1186/s12919-018-0105-1.
Stirling, A., Hayes, K. R., Delborne, J. A. (2018). Towards Inclusive Social Appraisal: Risk, Participation and Democracy in Governance of Synthetic Biology. Ed. Zachary S. Brown, Lucy Carter, and Fred Gould. An Introduction to the Proceedings of the Environmental Release of Engineered Pests: Building an International Governance Framework. BMC Proceedings 2018 12 (Suppl 8):15 doi: 10.1186/s12919-018-0111-3. DownloadTowards Inclusive Social Appraisal: Risk, Participation and Democracy in Governance of Synthetic BiologyJason Delborne2018https://bmcproc.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12919-018-0111-310.1186/s12919-018-0111-3.
Adam J. Bogdanove, David M. Donovan, Estefania Elorriaga, Jennifer Kuzma, Katia Pauwels, Steven H. Stauus, Daniel F. Voytas. Genome Editing in Agriculture: Methods, Applications, and Governance - A paper in the series on The Need for Agricultural Innovation to Sustainably Feed the World by 2050. July 9, 2018, by Council for Agricultural Science and Technology (CAST), Issue Paper 60. CAST, Ames, Iowa. DownloadGenome Editing in Agriculture: Methods, Applications, and GovernanceJennifer Kuzma2018http://cast-science.org/file.cfm/media/products/digitalproducts/CAST_IP60_Gene_Editing_D752224D52A53.pdf0
Fred Gould, Zachary Brown and Jennifer Kuzma. Wicked evolution: Can we address the sociobiological dilemma of pesticide resistance? Science 18 May 2018: Vol. 360, Issue 6390, pp. 728-732. DOI: 10.1126/science.aar3780. DownloadWicked evolution: Can we address the sociobiological dilemma of pesticide resistance?Fred Gould, Zack Brown, Jennifer Kuzma2018http://science.sciencemag.org/content/360/6390/72810.1126/science.aar3780.
Berube, David M. 2018. How social science should complement scientific discovery: lessons from nanoscience. J Nanopart Res 20:5 May 2018. doi: 10.1007/s11051-018-4210-xDownloadHow social science should complement scientific discovery: lessons from nanoscienceDavid Berube2018https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11051-018-4210-x10.1007/s11051-018-4210-x
National Academy of Sciences. 2018. Fred Gould talk "The Science Behind the News: Gene Drive" summarized in The Science of Science Communication III: Inspiring Novel Collaborations and Building Capacity: Proceedings of a Colloquium, pp 63-65. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/24958. DownloadThe Science Behind the News: Gene DriveFred Gould2018https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24958/the-science-of-science-communication-iii-inspiring-novel-collaborations-and10.17226/24958.
Igor Linkov, Benjamin D. Trump, Elke Anklam, David Berube, Patrick Boisseasu, Christopher Cummings, Scott Ferson, Marie-Valentine Florin, Jennifer Kuzma; et al. 2018. Comparative, collaborative, and integrative risk governance for emerging technologies, Environment Systems and Decisions, 1-7, doi: 10.1007/s10669-018-9686-5. DownloadComparative, collaborative, and integrative risk governance for emerging technologiesJennifer Kuzma, David Berube2018https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10669-018-9686-510.1007/s10669-018-9686-5.
Zachary S Brown; Voluntary Programs To Encourage Refuges for Pesticide Resistance Management: Lessons from a Quasi-Experiment, American Journal of Agricultural Economics, Volume 100, Issue 3, 1 April 2018, Pages 844–867, doi: 10.1093/ajae/aay004. DownloadVoluntary Programs To Encourage Refuges for Pesticide Resistance Management: Lessons from a Quasi-ExperimentZack Brown2018https://academic.oup.com/ajae/article/100/3/844/495416810.1093/ajae/aay004.
Kuiken, T. 2018. Vigilante Environmentalism: Are Gene Drives Changing How We Value and Govern Ecosystems? In Gene Editing, Law, and the Environment: Life beyond the human. Edited by Irus Braverman. Routledge. ISBN: 9781138051126.Vigilante Environmentalism: Are Gene Drives Changing How We Value and Govern Ecosystems?Todd Kuiken2019https://www.routledge.com/gene-editing-law-and-the-environment-life-beyond-the-human/braverman/p/book/97811380511260
Jason Delborne, Jennifer Kuzma, Fred Gould, Emma Frow, Caroline Leitschuh and Jayce Sudweeks. 2018. Mapping research and governance needs for gene drives. Journal of Responsible Innovation. Vol. 5, Iss. sup1, 2018. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2017.1419413. [Introduction to Special Issue: Roadmap to Gene Drives: Research and Governance Needs in Social, Political, and Ecological Context. Edited by J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh, and J. Sudweeks]. DownloadMapping research and governance needs for gene drivesJennifer Kuzma, Fred Gould, Jason Delborne, Caroline Leitschuh, Jayce Sudweeks2018http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2017.141941310.1080/23299460.2017.1419413.
J. Kuzma, F. Gould, Z. Brown, J. Collins, J. Delborne, E. Frow, K. Esvelt, D. Guston, C. Leitschuh, K. Oye and S. Stauffer. 2017. A roadmap for gene drives: using institutional analysis and development to frame research needs and governance in a systems context. Journal of Responsible Innovation. Vol. 5, Iss. sup1, 2018. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2017.1410344. [Special Issue: Roadmap to Gene Drives: Research and Governance Needs in Social, Political, and Ecological Context. Edited by J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh, and J. Sudweeks]. DownloadA roadmap for gene drives: using institutional analysis and development to frame research needs and governance in a systems contextJennifer Kuzma, Fred Gould, Zack Brown, Jason Delborne, Caroline Leitschuh, Sharon Stauffer, Jayce Sudweeks2017http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2017.141034410.1080/23299460.2017.1410344.
John Min, Andrea L. Smidler, Devora Najjar, and Kevin M. Esvelt. 2017. Harnessing gene drive. Journal of Responsible Innovation. Vol. 5, Iss. sup1, 2018. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2017.1415586. [Special Issue: Roadmap to Gene Drives: Research and Governance Needs in Social, Political, and Ecological Context. Edited by J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh, and J. Sudweeks]. DownloadHarnessing gene driveJason Delborne, Jennifer Kuzma, Fred Gould, Caroline Leitschuh, Jayce Sudweeks2018http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2017.141558610.1080/23299460.2017.1415586.
Austin Burt, Mamadou Coulibaly, Andrea Crisanti, Abdoulaye Diabate, and Jonathan K. Kayondo. 2018. Gene drive to reduce malaria transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. Journal of Responsible Innovation. Vol. 5, Iss. sup1, 2018. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2017.1419410. [Special Issue edited by J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh, and J. Sudweeks]. DownloadGene drive to reduce malaria transmission in sub-Saharan AfricaJason Delborne, Jennifer Kuzma, Fred Gould, Caroline Leitschuh, Jayce Sudweeks2018https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2017.141941010.1080/23299460.2017.1419410.
Jennifer Baltzegar, Jessica Cavin Barnes, Johanna E. Elsensohn, Nicole Gutzmann, Michael S. Jones, Sheron King, and Jayce Sudweeks. 2017. Anticipating complexity in the deployment of gene drive insects in agriculture. Journal of Responsible Innovation. Vol. 5, Iss. sup1, 2018. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2017.1407910. [Special Issue edited by J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh, and J. Sudweeks]. DownloadAnticipating complexity in the deployment of gene drive insects in agricultureJennifer Baltzegar, Jessica Cavin Barnes, Johanna Elsensohn, Nicole Gutzmann, Michael S. Jones, Sheron King, Jayce Sudweeks, Jason Delborne, Jennifer Kuzma, Fred Gould, Caroline Leitschuh2018http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2017.140791010.1080/23299460.2017.1407910.
Maxwell J. Scott, Fred Gould, Marcé Lorenzen, Nathaniel Grubbs, Owain Edwards and David O’Brochta. 2017. Agricultural production: assessment of the potential use of Cas9-mediated gene drive systems for agricultural pest control. Journal of Responsible Innovation. Vol. 5, Iss. sup1, 2018. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2017.1410343. [Special Issue: Roadmap to Gene Drives: Research and Governance Needs in Social, Political, and Ecological Context. Edited by J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh, and J. Sudweeks]. DownloadAgricultural production: assessment of the potential use of Cas9-mediated gene drive systems for agricultural pest controlFred Gould, Maxwell Scott, Marce Lorenzen, Jason Delborne, Jennifer Kuzma, Caroline Leitschuh, Jayce Sudweeks2017https://doi.org/10.1080/23299460.2017.141034310.1080/23299460.2017.1410343.
Caroline M. Leitschuh, Dona Kanavy, Gregory A. Backus, Rene X. Valdez, Megan Serr, Elizabeth A. Pitts, David Threadgill and John Godwin. 2017. Developing gene drive technologies to eradicate invasive rodents from islands. Journal of Responsible Innovation. Vol. 5, Iss. sup1, 2018. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2017.1365232. [Special Issue: Roadmap to Gene Drives: Research and Governance Needs in Social, Political, and Ecological Context. Edited by J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh, and J. Sudweeks]. DownloadDeveloping gene drive technologies to eradicate invasive rodents from islandsCaroline Leitschuh, Gregory Backus, Rene Valdez, Megan Serr, Elizabeth Pitts, John Godwin, Jason Delborne, Jennifer Kuzma, Fred Gould, Jayce Sudweeks2017http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2017.136523210.1080/23299460.2017.1365232.
K.R. Hayes, G.R. Hosack, G.V. Dana, S.D. Foster, J.H. Ford, R. Thresher, A. Ickowicz, D. Peel, M. Tizard, P. De Barro, T. Strive and J. M. Dambacher. 2018. Identifying and detecting potentially adverse ecological outcomes associated with the release of gene-drive modified organisms. Journal of Responsible Innovation. Vol. 5, Iss. sup1, 2018. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2017.1415585. [Special Issue: Roadmap to Gene Drives: Research and Governance Needs in Social, Political, and Ecological Context. Edited by J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh, and J. Sudweeks]. DownloadIdentifying and detecting potentially adverse ecological outcomes associated with the release of gene-drive modified organismsJason Delborne, Jennifer Kuzma, Fred Gould, Caroline Leitschuh, Jayce Sudweeks2018http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2017.141558510.1080/23299460.2017.1415585.
Paul B. Thompson. 2018. The roles of ethics in gene-drive research and governance. Journal of Responsible Innovation. Vol. 5, Iss. sup1, 2018. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2017.1415587. [Special Issue: Roadmap to Gene Drives: Research and Governance Needs in Social, Political, and Ecological Context. Edited by J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh, and J. Sudweeks]. DownloadThe roles of ethics in gene-drive research and governanceJason Delborne, Jennifer Kuzma, Fred Gould, Caroline Leitschuh, Jayce Sudweeks2018http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2017.141558710.1080/23299460.2017.1415587.
Paul D. Mitchell, Zachary Brown and Neil McRoberts. 2017. Economic issues to consider for gene drives. Journal of Responsible Innovation. Vol. 5, Iss. sup1, 2018. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2017.1407914. [Special Issue: Roadmap to Gene Drives: Research and Governance Needs in Social, Political, and Ecological Context. Edited by J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh, and J. Sudweeks]. DownloadEconomic issues to consider for gene drivesZack Brown, Jason Delborne, Jennifer Kuzma, Fred Gould, Caroline Leitschuh, Jayce Sudweeks2017http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/23299460.2017.140791410.1080/23299460.2017.1407914.
Sam Weiss Evans and Megan J. Palmer. 2017. Anomaly handling and the politics of gene drives. Journal of Responsible Innovation. Vol. 5, Iss. sup1, 2018. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2017.1407911. [Special Issue: Roadmap to Gene Drives: Research and Governance Needs in Social, Political, and Ecological Context. Edited by J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh, and J. Sudweeks]. DownloadAnomaly handling and the politics of gene drivesJason Delborne, Jennifer Kuzma, Fred Gould, Caroline Leitschuh, Jayce Sudweeks2018https://doi.org/10.1080/23299460.2017.140791110.1080/23299460.2017.1407911.
Raul F. Medina. 2017. Gene drives and the management of agricultural pests. Journal of Responsible Innovation. Vol. 5, Iss. sup1, 2018. doi: 10.1080/23299460.2017.1407913. [Special Issue: Roadmap to Gene Drives: Research and Governance Needs in Social, Political, and Ecological Context. Edited by J. Delborne, J. Kuzma, F. Gould, E. Frow, C. Leitschuh, and J. Sudweeks]. DownloadGene drives and the management of agricultural pestsJason Delborne, Jennifer Kuzma, Fred Gould, Caroline Leitschuh, Jayce Sudweeks2017https://doi.org/10.1080/23299460.2017.140791310.1080/23299460.2017.1407913
Jordan, N., K.M. Dorn, K.E. Wolf, P.M. Ewing, A.L. Fernandez, B.C. Runck, A. Williams, Y. Lu and, J. Kuzma. (2017). A Cooperative Governance Network for Crops Produced by Genome Editing. EMBO Journal, DOI: 10.15252/Embr.201744394. DownloadA Cooperative Governance Network for Crops Produced by Genome EditingJennifer Kuzma2017http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.15252/embr.201744394/full10.15252/Embr.201744394
Kuzma, J. (2017). "Society and Policy Makers' Responsibilities" In Consumer Perception of Product Risks and Benefits Eds: G. Emilien, R. Weitkunat and F. Luedicke. Springer: Dordrecht.Society and Policy Makers' ResponsibilitiesJennifer Kuzma2017http://www.springer.com/us/book/978331950528210.1007/978-3-319-50530-5
Kuzma, J. (2017). Trails and Trials in Biotechnology Policy. Pp 85-95 In Women in Sustainable Agriculture and Food Biotechnology Ed. L. Privalle. Springer.Trails and Trials in Biotechnology PolicyJennifer Kuzma2017https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2017/11/Trails-and-Trials-Women-in-Sustainable-AgBiotech-Kuzma-Ch6.pdf0
Kuzma J. (2017). "Risk, Environmental Governance, and Emerging Biotechnology" In Environmental Governance Reconsidered: Challenges, Choices, and Opportunities, 2nd Edition. Eds. R. Durant, DJ Fiorino, and R O'Leary. MIT PressRisk, Environmental Governance, and Emerging BiotechnologyJennifer Kuzma2017https://mitpress.mit.edu/9780262533317/environmental-governance-reconsidered/0
Kuzma J. (2017). Forum: Biosecurity Governance for a Realistic New World. Issues in Science and Technology 33: (2).Forum: Biosecurity Governance for a Realistic New WorldJennifer Kuzma2017http://issues.org/33-2/forum-33/0
Cummings C. and J. Kuzma (2017) Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES): Scenario-based Multi-criteria Evaluation of Synthetic Biology Applications. PLoS ONE 12(1): E0168564. doi: 10.1371/Journal.Pone.0168564Societal Risk Evaluation Scheme (SRES): Scenario-based Multi-criteria Evaluation of Synthetic Biology ApplicationsJennifer Kuzma2017http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.016856410.1371/Journal.Pone.0168564
Trump B., Cummings C, Kuzma, J. and I. Linkov (2017). A Decision Analytic Model to Guide Early-Stage Government Regulatory Action: Applications for Synthetic Biology. Regulation and Governance doi:10.1111/Rego.12142.A Decision Analytic Model to Guide Early-Stage Government Regulatory Action: Applications for Synthetic BiologyJennifer Kuzma2017http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/rego.12142/full10.1111/Rego.12142
Jennifer Kuzma, Committee member and co-author. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2017. Preparing for Future Products of Biotechnology. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/24605.Preparing for the Future of BiotechnologyJennifer Kuzma2017https://www.nap.edu/catalog/24605/preparing-for-future-products-of-biotechnology10.17226/24605.
Herkert J., Kuzma, J. Roberts, P., Banks, E (2017). Ethics and responsible innovation in biotechnology communities: A pedagogy of engaged scholarship. Proceedings of the 2017 ASEE Annual Conference 18015: 1-20.Ethics and responsible innovation in biotechnology communities: A pedagogy of engaged scholarshipJennifer Kuzma, Joseph Herkert, Erin Banks2017https://www.asee.org/public/conferences/78/papers/18015/view
Michael R. Vella, Christian E. Gunning, Alun L. Lloyd & Fred Gould. 2017. Nature: Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 11038 (2017) doi:10.1038/S41598-017-10633-2Evaluating strategies for reversing CRISPR-Cas9 gene drivesFred Gould, Michael Vella, Christian Gunning, Alun Lloyd2017https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-10633-210.1038/S41598-017-10633-2
Gould, F., Amasino, R.M., Brossard, D., Buell, C.R., Dixon, R.A., et al. (2017). Elevating the conversation about GE crops. Nature Biotechnology 35, 302-304 (2017) doi:10.1038/Nbt.3841Elevating the conversation about GE cropsFred Gould2017https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt.384110.1038/Nbt.3841
Letter to the Editor: National Academies Report on Genetically Engineered Crops Guarded Against Bias. Committee on Genetically Engineered Crops (Chair: Fred Gould), National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. In The Chronicle of Higher Education. June 12, 2017.National Academies Report on Genetically Engineered Crops Guarded Against BiasFred Gould2017https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt.384110.1038/nbt.3841
Z. S. Brown (2017). The Economics, Regulation and International Implications of Gene Drives in Agriculture. Choices, Quarter 2.The Economics, Regulation and International Implications of Gene Drives in AgricultureZack Brown2017http://www.choicesmagazine.org/choices-magazine/submitted-articles/economic-regulatory-and-international-implications-of-gene-drives-in-agriculture0
D. Miteva, R. A. Kramer, Z. S. Brown, M. D. Smith (2017). Spatial patterns of market participation and resource extraction: Fuelwood collection in northern Uganda. American Journal of Agricultural Economics. Volume 99, Issue 4, 1 July 2017, Pages 1008-1026, doi: 10.1093/Ajae/aax027Spatial patterns of market participation and resource extraction: Fuelwood collection in northern UgandaZack Brown2017https://academic.oup.com/ajae/article/99/4/1008/382807410.1093/Ajae/aax027
Z. S. Brown, R. A. Kramer (2017). Preference Heterogeneity in the Structural Estimation of Efficient Pigovian Incentives for Insecticide Spraying to Reduce Malaria. Environmental and Resource Economics. doi: 10.1007/S10640-017-0115-xPreference Heterogeneity in the Structural Estimation of Efficient Pigovian Incentives for Insecticide Spraying to Reduce MalariaZack Brown2017https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10640-017-0115-x10.1007/S10640-017-0115-x
D. Kim, Z. S. Brown, et al. (2017). The value of information in decision-analytic modeling for malaria control in east Africa. Risk Analysis, 37(2): 231-244.The value of information in decision-analytic modeling for malaria control in east AfricaZack Brown2017http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/risa.12606/full10.1111/risa.12606
Todd Kuiken. "DARPA's Synthetic Biology Initiatives Could Militarize the Environment" in Slate series Future Tense: The Citizen's Guide to the Future. May 3, 2017.DARPA's Synthetic Biology Initiatives Could Militarize the EnvironmentTodd Kuiken2017http://www.slate.com/articles/technology/future_tense/2017/05/what_happens_if_darpa_uses_synthetic_biology_to_manipulate_mother_nature.html0
Eleonore Pauwels and Todd Kuiken. Citizen health innovators: exploring stories of modern health. Biocoder #12. O'Reilly Media. April 12, 2017.Citizen health innovators: exploring stories of modern healthTodd Kuiken2017https://www.oreilly.com/ideas/citizen-health-innovators-exploring-stories-of-modern-health0
Amanda (Clayton) Walsh. 2016. Economic Considerations in Vector-Borne Disease Management. Ph. D Thesis. [Under the direction of Melinda Morrill and Walter Thurman]. DownloadEconomic Considerations in Vector-Borne Disease ManagementAmanda Clayton Walsh2016http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/111120
Arina Loghin. 2013. Who is an Actor? Analyzing Agency in a Lab’s Social World. M.S. Thesis. [Under the direction of Nora Haenn]. DownloadWho is an Actor? Analyzing Agency in a Lab’s Social World.Nora Haenn, Arina Loghin2017http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/94480
Antonelli, T., Clayton, A., Hartzog, M., Webster, S., and Zilnik, G. 2016. Transgenic Pests and Human Health: a Short Overview of Social, Cultural, and Scientific Considerations. In Genetic Control of Malaria and Dengue. Edited by Zach N. Adelman. Academic Press. ISBN: 9780128002469.Transgenic Pests and Human Health: a Short Overview of Social, Cultural, and Scientific Considerations.Timothy Antonelli, Amanda Clayton Walsh, Molly Hartzog, Sophia Webster, Gabriel Zilnik2016https://www.google.com/books/edition/Genetic_Control_of_Malaria_and_Dengue/q-LIBAAAQBAJ?hl=en&gbpv=1&dq=Genetic+Control+of+Malaria+and+Dengue&pg=PP1&printsec=frontcover#v=onepage&q&f=false0
Nicole Gutzmann, Johanna E. Elsensohn, Jessica Cavin Barnes, Jennifer Baltzegar, Michael S. Jones, and Jayce Sudweeks. 2017. CRISPR-based Gene Drive in Agriculture Will Face Technical and Governance Challenges. EMBO Reports. doi: 10.15252/embr.201744661. DownloadCRISPR-based Gene Drive in Agriculture Will Face Technical and Governance ChallengesNicole Gutzmann, Johanna Elsensohn, Jessica Cavin Barnes, Jennifer Baltzegar, Michael S. Jones, Jayce Sudweeks2017http://embor.embopress.org/content/early/2017/08/07/embr.20174466110.15252/embr.201744661.
Barrangou R, Ousterout DG. (2017) Repurposing CRISPR-Cas systems as DNA-based smart antimicrobials. Cell & Gene Therapy Insights. 3:63-72 DOI: 10.18609/Cgti.2017.003Repurposing CRISPR-Cas systems as DNA-based smart antimicrobialsRodolphe Barrangou2017http://insights.bio/cell-and-gene-therapy-insights/?journal_issue=vol-3-issue-110.18609/Cgti.2017.003
Selle K, Goh YJ, Johnson BR, O'Flaherty S, Andersen JM, Barrangou R, Klaenhammer TR. (2017) Deletion of Lipoteichoic Acid Synthase Impacts Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Surface Proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilus. Front Microbiol. 8:553. doi: 10.3389/Fmicb.2017.00553.Deletion of Lipoteichoic Acid Synthase Impacts Expression of Genes Encoding Cell Surface Proteins in Lactobacillus acidophilusRodolphe Barrangou2017https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.00553/full10.3389/Fmicb.2017.00553.
Barrangou R, Gersbach CA. (2017) Expanding the CRISPR Toolbox: Targeting RNA with Cas13b. Mol Cell. 65:582-584. doi: 10.1016/J.Molcel.2017.02.002Expanding the CRISPR Toolbox: Targeting RNA with Cas13bRodolphe Barrangou2017http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s109727651730094110.1016/J.Molcel.2017.02.002
Stout E, Klaenhammer T, Barrangou R. (2017) CRISPR-Cas Technologies and Applications in Food Bacteria. Annu Rev Food Sci Technol. 8:413-437. doi: 10.1146/Annurev-food-072816-024723.CRISPR-Cas Technologies and Applications in Food BacteriaRodolphe Barrangou2017http://www.annualreviews.org/doi/abs/10.1146/annurev-food-072816-02472310.1146/Annurev-food-072816-024723
Hidalgo-Cantabrana C, O'Flaherty S, Barrangou R. (2017) CRISPR-based engineering of next-generation lactic acid bacteria. Curr Opin Microbiol. 37:79-87. doi: 10.1016/J.Mib.2017.05.015CRISPR-based engineering of next-generation lactic acid bacteriaRodolphe Barrangou2017http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s1369527417300437?via=ihub10.1016/J.Mib.2017.05.015
Johnson BR, O'Flaherty SJ, Goh YJ, Carroll I, Barrangou R, Klaenhammer TR. (2017) The S-layer associated serine protease homolog PrtX impacts cell surface-mediated microbe-host interactions of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFM. Front. Microbiol. doi:10.3389/Fmicb.2017.01185The S-layer Associated Serine Protease Homolog PrtX Impacts Cell Surface-Mediated Microbe-Host Interactions of Lactobacillus acidophilus NCFMRodolphe Barrangou2017https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01185/full10.3389/Fmicb.2017.01185
Barrangou R, Horvath P. (2017) A decade of discovery: CRISPR functions and applications. Nat Microbiol. 2:17092. doi: 10.1038/Nmicrobiol.2017.92A decade of discovery: CRISPR functions and applicationsRodolphe Barrangou2017https://doi.org/10.1038/Nmicrobiol.2017.9210.1038/Nmicrobiol.2017.92
Marshall, R., Maxwell, C. S., Collins, S. P., Beisel, C. L. and Noireaux, V. (2017), Short DNA containing X sites enhances DNA stability and gene expression in e. Coli cell-free transcription-translation systems. Biotechnol. Bioeng., 114: 2137-2141. doi:10.1002/Bit.26333Short DNA containing X sites enhances DNA stability and gene expression in e. Coli cell-free transcription-translation systemsChase Beisel2017http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/bit.26333/abstract10.1002/Bit.26333
Leenay RT & Beisel, C.L. (2017) Deciphering, communicating, and engineering the CRISPR PAM. J Mol Biol 429(2):177-91Deciphering, communicating, and engineering the CRISPR PAMChase Beisel20170
Jameson, J. K., Berry-James, R. M., Daley, D. M., & Coggburn, J. C. (2017). Effectiveness of Mediation in the State Agency Grievance Process. In The Handbook of Mediation: Theory, Research and Practice. New York, NY:Routledge/Taylor & Francis, pp.164-169. ISBN 987-1-138-12421-9Effectiveness of Mediation in the State Agency Grievance ProcessJade Berry-James20170
Kandiah, V., Binder, A. R., & Berglund, E. Z. 2017. An Empirical agent-based model to simulate the adoption of water reuse using the social amplification of risk framework. Risk Analysis. doi:10.1111/Risa.12760An Empirical Agent-Based Model to Simulate the Adoption of Water Reuse Using the Social Amplification of Risk FrameworkAndrew Binder2017http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/risa.12760/full10.1111/Risa.12760
Jones, M.S., Roderick, R.M., Brown, Z.S. & Yorobe, J.M., (2017). "Do farmers with less education realize higher yield gains from GM maize in developing countries? Evidence from the Philippines," 2017 Annual Meeting, Southern Agricultural Economics Association, February 4-7, 2017, Mobile, Alabama 252822.Do farmers with less education realize higher yield gains from GM maize in developing countries? Evidence from the PhilippinesZack Brown, Michael S. Jones, Roderick Rejesus2017http://ageconsearch.umn.edu/record/25282210.22004/ag.econ.252822
Swoboda-Bhattarai, K.S., D.R. McPhie, and H.J. Burrack. 2017. Reproductive Status of Drosophila Suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) Females Influences Attraction to Fermentation-Based Baits and Ripe Fruits. Journal of Economic Entomology, Volume 110, Issue 4, 1 August 2017, Pages 1648-1652, doi: 10.1093/Jee/tox150Reproductive Status of Drosophila Suzukii Females Influences Attraction to Fermentation-Based Baits and Ripe FruitsHannah Burrack2017https://academic.oup.com/jee/article/110/4/1648/385227310.1093/Jee/tox150
Howell, F., R. Heiniger, H.J. Burrack, and D. Reisig. 2017. Impact of imidacloprid treated seed and foliar insecticides on Hessian fly in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Crop Protection. 98: 46-55. doi: 10.1016/J.Cropro.2017.03.007Impact of imidacloprid treated seed and foliar insecticide on Hessian fly abundances in wheatHannah Burrack2017http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s026121941730063710.1016/J.Cropro.2017.03.007
Suits, R. D. Reisig, and H.J. Burrack. 2017. Feeding preference and performance of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on different soybean (Fabales: Fabaceae) tissue types. Florida Entomologist. 100(1):162-167. doi: 10.1653/024.100.0123Feeding preference and performance of Helicoverpa zea (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) larvae on different soybean (Fabales: Fabaceae) tissue typesHannah Burrack2017http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1653/024.100.012310.1653/024.100.0123
Diepenbrock, L.M., J.A. Hardin, H.J. Burrack. 2017. Season-long programs for control of Drosophila Suzukii in southeastern United States blackberries. Crop Protection. 98: 149-156. doi: 10.1016/J.Cropro.2017.03.022Season-long programs for control of Drosophila Suzukii in southeastern United States blackberriesHannah Burrack2017http://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2017.03.02210.1016/J.Cropro.2017.03.022
Reisig, D., R. Suits, H. Burrack, J. Bacheler, and J. E. Dunphy. 2017. Does florivory by Helicoverpa zea cause yield loss in soybeans? Journal of Economic Entomology. doi: 10.1093/Jee/tow312Does florivory by Helicoverpa zea cause yield loss in soybeans?Hannah Burrack2017https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tow31210.1093/Jee/tow312
Aly, M.F.K., D.A. Kraus, and H.J. Burrack. 2017. Effects of post-harvest cold storage on the development and survival of immature Drosophila Suzukii (Matsumura) in artificial diet and fruit. Journal of Economic Entomology. 110(1): 87-93. doi: 10.1093/Jee/tow289Effects of post-harvest cold storage on the development and survival of immature Drosophila Suzukii (Matsumura) in artificial diet and fruitHannah Burrack2017https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tow28910.1093/Jee/tow289
McPhie. D.R. and H.J. Burrack. 2017. Effect of Simulated Anthonomus signatus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) Injury on Strawberries (Fragaria ananassa) Grown in Southeastern Plasticulture Production. Journal of Economic Entomology. 110(1): 208-212. doi: 10.1093/Jee/tow266Effect of Simulated Anthonomus signatus (Coleoptera:Curculionidae) Injury on Strawberries (Fragaria - ananassa) Grown in Southeastern Plasticulture ProductionHannah Burrack2017https://doi.org/10.1093/jee/tow26610.1093/Jee/tow266
Thekke-Veetil, T., A. Khadgi, D. Johnson, H.J. Burrack, S. Sabanadzovic, and I.E. Tzanetakis. 2017. First report of raspberry leaf mottle virus in blackberry in the United States. Plant Disease. 101(1): 265. http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-07-16-1014-PDNFirst report of raspberry leaf mottle virus in blackberry in the United StatesHannah Burrack2017http://dx.doi.org/10.1094/pdis-07-16-1014-pdn10.1094/PDIS-07-16-1014-PDN
Dubljevic, V. and Racine, E. (2017), Moral Enhancement Meets Normative and Empirical Reality: Assessing the Practical Feasibility of Moral Enhancement Neurotechnologies. Bioethics, 31: 338-348. doi:10.1111/Bioe.12355Moral Enhancement Meets Normative and Empirical Reality: Assessing the Practical Feasibility of Moral Enhancement NeurotechnologiesVeljko Dubljevic2016http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/bioe.12355/full10.1111/Bioe.12355
Dubljevic, V. (In Press): Is it Time to Abandon the Strong Interpretation of the Dual Process Model in Neuroethics? In Racine, E & Aspler, J. (Eds.): Debates about Neuroethics: Perspectives on its Development, Focus, and Future. Heidelberg, Germany: Springer.Is it Time to Abandon the Strong Interpretation of the Dual Process Model in Neuroethics?Veljko Dubljevic2016https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-3-319-54651-3_910.1007/978-3-319-54651-3_9
Racine, E., Ngyen, V., Saigle, V. & Dubljevic, V. (2017): Media Portrayal of a Landmark Neuroscience Experiment on Free Will. Science & Engineering Ethics, 23: 989. doi: 10.1007/S11948-016-9845-3Media Portrayal of a Landmark Neuroscience Experiment on Free WillVeljko Dubljevic2016https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11948-016-9845-310.1007/S11948-016-9845-3
Voarino, N., Dubljevic, V. & Racine E. (2017): TDCS for Memory Enhancement: A Critical Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical Issues. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience, DOI: 10.3389/Fnhum.2016.00678tDCS for Memory Enhancement: A Critical Analysis of the Speculative Aspects of Ethical IssuesVeljko Dubljevic2016https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fnhum.2016.00678/full10.3389/Fnhum.2016.00678
Godwin, J., Lamm, M. Socially Controlled Sex Change in Fishes. In: Pfaff, D.W and Joels, M. (Editors-in-chief), Hormones, Brain, and Behavior 3rd Edition, Vol 2. Oxford: Academic Press; 2017. Pp. 31-46.Socially Controlled Sex Change in FishesJohn Godwin2017
Yakob, L., Lloyd, A.L., Kao, R., Ferguson, H.M., Brock, P., Drakeley, C. & Bonsall. M. (2017) Plasmodium knowlesi invasion following spread by infected mosquitoes, macaques and humans. Parasitology. doi: 10.1017/S0031182016002456Plasmodium knowlesi invasion following spread by infected mosquitoes, macaques and humansAlun Lloyd2016https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/parasitology/article/plasmodium-knowlesi-invasion-following-spread-by-infected-mosquitoes-macaques-and-humans/2487d515cb0062afa883c8fbd7cc886d10.1017/S0031182016002456
Zhang, Y. & Lloyd, A.L. (2017) Weak convergence of a seasonally forced epidemic model. Journal of Mathematical Biology. doi: arXiv:1412.0964 , http://arxiv.org/abs/1412.0964Weak convergence of a seasonally forced epidemic modelAlun Lloyd2017http://arxiv.org/abs/1412.096410.48550/arXiv.1412.0964
Usaini, S., Lloyd, A.L., anguelov, R. & Garba, S.M. (2017) Dynamical behavior of an epidemiological model with a demographic Allee effect. Math. Comput. Simul. 133, 311. doi:10.1016/J.Matcom.2016.04.010Dynamical behavior of an epidemiological model with a demographic Allee effectAlun Lloyd2016https://www.semanticscholar.org/paper/dynamical-behavior-of-an-epidemiological-model-wit-usaini-lloyd/5f584de769ca8f2b12bbff9fa3da00f4a841cb4b10.1016/J.Matcom.2016.04.010
Chu F., Klobasa, W., Wu, P., Pinzi, S., Grubbs, N., Gorski, S., Cardoza, Y. and Lorenzen, M.D. (2017) Germline transformation of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera. Insect Mol Biol. doi: 10.1111/Imb.12305 http://onlinelibrary.Wiley.com/doi/10.1111/Imb.12305/EpdfGermline transformation of the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgiferaMarce Lorenzen2017http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/imb.12305/epdf10.1111/Imb.12305
Sper, R.B., Koh, S., Zhang, X., Simpson, S., Collins, B., Sommer, J., Petters, R.M., Caballero, I., Platt, J.L., Piedrahita, J.A. (2017). Generation of a Stable Transgenic Swine Model Expressing a Porcine Histone 2B-EGFP Fusion Protein for Cell Tracking and Chromosome Dynamics Studies. Plos One 2017. 12:E0169242.PMID 28081156Generation of a Stable Transgenic Swine Model Expressing a Porcine Histone 2B-EGFP Fusion Protein for Cell Tracking and Chromosome Dynamics StudiesJorge Piedrahita2017https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/m/pubmed/28081156/
Yan, Y., Linger, R.J. and Scott, M.J. (2017) Transgenic early-larval sexing systems for genetic control of the Australian sheep blow fly Lucilia cuprina. Scientific Reports 7, Article number: 2538. doi:10.1038/S41598-017-02763-4Building early-larval sexing systems for genetic control of the Australian sheep blow fly Lucilia cuprina using two constitutive promotersMaxwell Scott2017https://www.nature.com/articles/s41598-017-02763-410.1038/S41598-017-02763-4
Scott, M. J., Concha, C., Welch, J. B., Phillips, P. L. and Skoda, S. R. (2017), Review of research advances in the screwworm eradication program over the past 25 years. Entomol ExpAppl, 164: 226-236. doi:10.1111/Eea.12607Review of research advances in the screwworm eradication program over the past 25 yearsMaxwell Scott2017http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/eea.12607/full10.1111/Eea.12607
Rui Shi, Jack P. Wang, Ying-Chung Lin, Quanzi Li, Ying-Hsuan Sun, Hao Chen, Ronald R. Sederoff, Vincent L. Chiang (2017). Tissue and cell-type co-expression networks of transcription factors and wood component genes in Populus trichocarpa. Planta, 245:927-938. doi: 10.1007/S00425-016-2640-1Tissue and cell-type co-expression networks of transcription factors and wood component genes in Populus trichocarpaRonald Sederoff2017https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00425-016-2640-110.1007/S00425-016-2640-1
Kuzma J. (2016). A Missed Opportunity for Biotech Regulation. Science 353: 1211-1213. DOI: 10.1126/Science.Aai7854A Missed Opportunity for Biotech RegulationJennifer Kuzma2016http://science.sciencemag.org/content/353/6305/1211.full10.1126/Science.Aai7854
Kuzma J. and L. Rawls. (2016). Engineering the Wild: Gene Drives and Intergenerational Equity. Jurimetrics: The Journal of Law, Science and Technology 56 (3): 279-296.Engineering the Wild: Gene Drives and Intergenerational EquityJennifer Kuzma2016https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2014/02/engineering_the_wild.authcheckdam.pdf
Kuzma, J. (2016). Rebooting the Debate about Genetic Engineering. Nature 531: 165-167.doi:10.1038/531165ARebooting the Debate about Genetic EngineeringJennifer Kuzma2016https://www.nature.com/news/policy-reboot-the-debate-on-genetic-engineering-1.1950610.1038/531165A
Kuzma, J. and J.P. Roberts. (2016) Is Adaptation or Transformation Needed?: Active Nanomaterials and Risk Analysis. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 18(7), 1-18. doi: 10.1007/S11051-016-3506-yIs Adaptation or Transformation Needed?: Active Nanomaterials and Risk AnalysisJennifer Kuzma2016https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11051-016-3506-y10.1007/S11051-016-3506-y
Kuzma J., A. Kokotovich, and A. Kuzhabekova. (2016). Attitudes Towards Governance of Gene Editing. Asian Biotechnology Development Review 18(1): 69-92.Attitudes Towards Governance of Gene EditingJennifer Kuzma2016https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2014/02/ABDR-March-2016.pdf
Kuzma J. (2016) As technology advances, how do we avoid losing touch with our values? World Economic Forum, https://www.Weforum.org/agenda/2016/12/technology-how-do-we-avoid-losing-values/As technology advances, how do we avoid losing touch with our values?Jennifer Kuzma2016https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/12/technology-how-do-we-avoid-losing-values/
Kuzma J. (2016). Future Generations and Gene Drives: the Importance of Intergenerational Equity. Questions for a Resilient Future: Center for Humans and Nature. https://www.Humansandnature.org/future-generations-and-gene-drivesFuture Generations and Gene Drives: The Importance of Intergenerational EquityJennifer Kuzma2016https://www.humansandnature.org/future-generations-and-gene-drives
Kuzma J. (2016) "New genetic engineering is slipping past old regulations," Aeon magazine, aeon.Co. May 6, 2016.New genetic engineering is slipping past old regulationsJennifer Kuzma2016https://aeon.co/ideas/new-genetic-engineering-is-slipping-past-old-regulations
Kuzma J. and JP Roberts. Transformation or Adaptation: Active Nanomaterials and Risk Governance. Workshop paper for "Next Generation Nano Governance" American Chemical Society, CNS-ASU, and Notre Dame NSF funded workshop. Washington DC October 9, 2015.Transformation or Adaptation: Active Nanomaterials and Risk GovernanceJennifer Kuzma2016https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11051-016-3506-y
Okamoto, K. W., F. Gould, A. L. Lloyd. 2016. Integrating Transgenic Vector Manipulation with Clinical Interventions to Manage Vector-Borne Diseases. PLOS Computational Biology. Published: March 10, 2016 http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/Journal.Pcbi.1004695Interventions to Manage Vector-Borne DiseasesFred Gould2016http://journals.plos.org/ploscompbiol/article?id=10.1371/journal.pcbi.100469510.1371/Journal.Pcbi.1004695
Fritz, M. L., S. Paa, J. Baltzegar, F. Gould. 2016. Application of a dense genetic map for assessment of genomic responses to selection and inbreeding in Heliothis virescens. Insect Mol. Biol. 25:385-400. DOI: 10.1111/Imb.12234Application of a dense genetic map for assessment of genomic responses to selection and inbreeding in Heliothis virescensFred Gould2016http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/imb.12234/abstract10.1111/Imb.12234
Li G, Reisig D, Miao J, Gould F, Huang F, Feng H. 2016. Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). PLoS ONE 11(4): E0154492. doi:10.1371/Journal.Pone.0154492Frequency of Cry1F Non-Recessive Resistance Alleles in North Carolina Field Populations of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)Fred Gould2016http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.015449210.1371/Journal.Pone.0154492
Legros, M., Otero, M., Romeo Aznar, V., Solari, H., Gould, F., & Lloyd, A. L. 2016. Comparison of two detailed models of Aedes aegypti population dynamics. Ecosphere 7, no. 10.Comparison of two detailed models of Aedes aegypti population dynamicsFred Gould2016http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ecs2.1515/full10.1002/ecs2.1515
F. Gould, Study Chair and co-author. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and Prospects. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23395.Genetically Engineered Crops: Experiences and ProspectsFred Gould2016https://www.nap.edu/read/23395/chapter/110.17226/23395.
Z. S. Brown, R. A. Kramer, D. Ocan, C. Oryema (2016). Household perceptions and subjective valuations of indoor residual spraying programs to control malaria in northern Uganda. Infectious Diseases of Poverty, 5:100.Household perceptions and subjective valuations of indoor residual spraying programs to control malaria in northern UgandaZack Brown2016https://idpjournal.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s40249-016-0190-1
Z. S. Brown, W. Oueslati, J. Silva (2016). Links between urban structure and life satisfaction in a cross-section of OECD metro areas. Ecological Economics, 129: 112-121.Links between urban structure and life satisfaction in a cross-section of OECD metro areasZack Brown2016http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s0921800915302251
Z. S. Brown. 2016. Voluntary programs to Encourage compliance with refuge regulations for pesticide resistance management: results from a quasi-experiment. Agricultural and Applied Economics Association (AAEA); 2016 Annual Meeting, July 31-August 2, Boston, Massachusetts.Voluntary programs to Encourage compliance with refuge regulations for pesticide resistance management: results from a quasi-experimentZack Brown2016http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s0921800915302251
Jason Delborne, Committee member and co-author. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. 2016. Gene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public Values. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. doi: 10.17226/23405. DownloadGene Drives on the Horizon: Advancing Science, Navigating Uncertainty, and Aligning Research with Public ValuesJason Delborne2016https://www.nap.edu/catalog/23405/gene-drives-on-the-horizon-advancing-science-navigating-uncertainty-and10.17226/23405.
Delborne, Jason. (2016) Suppression and Dissent in Science. In T. Bretag (ed.), Handbook of Academic Integrity (pp. 943-956). Springer Reference.Suppression and Dissent in ScienceJason Delborne2016https://link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/978-981-287-098-8_30.pdf
Kaebnick, G. E., Heitman, E., Collins, J. P., Delborne, J. A., Landis, W. G., Sawyer, K., Tanneyhill, L., Winickoff, D. E. (2016) Precaution and governance of emerging technologies. Science, 11 Nov 2016:Precaution and governance of emerging technologiesJason Delborne2016https://doi.org/10.1126/science.aah512510.1126/science.aah5125
Kimmel, Shawn , Toohey, Nathan , & Delborne, Jason. (2016) Roadblocks to Responsible Innovation: exploring technology assessment and adoption in U.S. Public Highway Construction. Technology in Society, 44, 66-77. doi: 10.1016/J.Techsoc.2015.12.002.Roadblocks to Responsible Innovation: exploring technology assessment and adoption in U.S. Public Highway ConstructionJason Delborne2016https://www.researchgate.net/publication/290480913_roadblocks_to_responsible_innovation_exploring_technology_assessment_and_adoption_in_us_public_highway_construction10.1016/J.Techsoc.2015.12.002.
Boeke, J., Church, G., Hessel, A., Kelley, N.J., Arkin, A., Cai, Y., Carlson, R., Chakravarti, A., Cornish, V.W., Holt, L., Isaacs, F.J., Kuiken, T., Lajoie, M., Lessor, T., Lunshof, J., Maurano, M.T., Mitchell, L.A., Rine, J., Sanjana, N.E., Silver, P.A., Valle, D., Wang, H., Way, J.C., Yang, L. 2016. The Genome Project-Write. Science. June, 2016.The Genome Project-WriteTodd Kuiken2016http://science.sciencemag.org/content/early/2016/06/01/science.aaf6850.full
Kuiken, T. 2016. Governance: Learn from DIY biologists. Nature. Vol. 531, 167-168.Governance: Learn from DIY biologistsTodd Kuiken2016http://www.nature.com/news/governance-learn-from-diy-biologists-1.19507
Todd Kuiken (contributor). Science for Environment Policy. 2016. Synthetic biology and biodiversity. Future Brief 15. Produced for the European Commission DG Environment by the Science Communication Unit, UWe, Bristol.Governance: Learn from DIY biologistsTodd Kuiken2016http://ec.europa.eu/environment/integration/research/newsalert/pdf/synthetic_biology_biodiversity_fb15_en.pdf
Morovic W, Hibberd AA, Zabel B, Barrangou R, Stahl B. (2016) Genotyping by PCR and High-Throughput Sequencing of Commercial Probiotic Products Reveals Composition Biases. Front. Microbiol. Dx.doi.org/10.3389/Fmicb.2016.01747Genotyping by PCR and High-Throughput Sequencing of Commercial Probiotic Products Reveals Composition BiasesRodolphe Barrangou2016https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2016.01747/full10.3389/Fmicb.2016.01747
Barrangou R, Doudna JA. (2016) Applications of CRISPR technologies in research and beyond. Nature Biotechnology, 34:933-941 doi:10.1038/Nbt.3659Applications of CRISPR technologies in research and beyond. Nature BiotechnologyRodolphe Barrangou2016https://www.nature.com/articles/nbt.365910.1038/Nbt.3659
Andersen JM, Shoup M, Robinson C, Britton R, Olsen KeP, Barrangou R. (2016) CRISPR diversity and microevolution in Clostridium difficile. Genome Biology and Evolution. doi: 10.1093/Gbe/evw203CRISPR diversity and microevolution in Clostridium difficileRodolphe Barrangou2016https://academic.oup.com/gbe/article/8/9/2841/223657010.1093/Gbe/evw203
Briner Ae, Barrangou R. (2016) Guide RNAs: A Glimpse at the Sequences that Drive CRISPR-Cas Systems. CRISPR-Cas a laboratory manual. CSHL Protocols. 17-23. DOI: 10.1101/Pdb.Top090902Guide RNAs: A Glimpse at the Sequences that Drive CRISPR-Cas SystemsRodolphe Barrangou2016http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2016/7/pdb.top09090210.1101/Pdb.Top090902
Briner AE, Henriksen ED, Barrangou R. (2016) Prediction and validation of native and engineered Cas9 guide sequences. CRISPR-Cas a laboratory manual. CSHL Protocols. 24-30 DOI: 10.1101/Pdb.Prot086785Prediction and validation of native and engineered Cas9 guide sequencesRodolphe Barrangou2016http://cshprotocols.cshlp.org/content/2016/7/pdb.prot08678510.1101/Pdb.Prot086785
Luo ML, Jackson R, Denny SR, Tokmina-Lukaszewska M, Maksimchuk KR, Lin W, Bothner B, Wiedenheft B, Beisel, C.L. (2016) The CRISPR RNA-guided surveillance complex in escherichia coli accommodates extended RNA spacers. Nucleic Acids Res 44(15):7385-94.The CRISPR RNA-guided surveillance complex in escherichia coli accommodates extended RNA spacersChase Beisel2016
Luo ML, Beisel, C.L. (2016) SBe Supplement: Synthetic Biology - Engineering Genes with CRISPR-Cas9. Chemical Engineering Progress September 2016 issue.SBe Supplement: Synthetic Biology - Engineering Genes with CRISPR-Cas9Chase Beisel2016
Berube D, Cumming CL. 2016. Convergence in Ethical Implications and Communication of Emerging Technologies. In book: Handbook of Science and Technology Convergence, pp.755-766. DOI10.1007/978-3-319-07052-0_64Convergence, Interdisciplinarity, and the Public and Expert Sphere, Handbook of Science and Technology ConvergenceDavid Berube2016http://www.academia.edu/15338686/convergence_in_ethical_implications_and_communication_of_emerging_technologies10.1007/978-3-319-07052-0_64
Binder, A. R., Hillback, E. D. and Brossard, D. (2016), Conflict or Caveats? Effects of Media Portrayals of Scientific Uncertainty on Audience Perceptions of New Technologies. Risk Analysis, 36: 831-846. doi:10.1111/Risa.12462Conflict or Caveats? Effects of Media Portrayals of Scientific Uncertainty on Audience Perceptions of New TechnologiesAndrew Binder2016http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/risa.12462/full10.1111/Risa.12462
Merchan, H.A. and H.J. Burrack. 2016. Using bioassays with the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) to determine residual activity of two systemically applied neonicotinoid insecticides in field-grown tobacco. International Journal of Pest Management. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670874.2016.1261202Using bioassays with the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) to determine residual activity of two systemically applied neonicotinoid insecticides in field-grown tobaccoHannah Burrack2016http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09670874.2016.126120210.1080/09670874.2016.1261202
Slone, J.D. and H.J. Burrack. 2016. Integrated pest management practices reduce insecticide applications, preserve beneficial insects, and decrease pesticide residues in flue cured tobacco production. Journal of Economic Entomology. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/Jee/tow191Integrated pest management practices reduce insecticide applications, preserve beneficial insects, and decrease pesticide residues in flue cured tobacco productionHannah Burrack2016http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jee/tow19110.1093/Jee/tow191
McPhie. D.R. and H.J. Burrack. 2016. Effects of microbial, organically acceptable, and reduced risk insecticides on Anthonomus signatus (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) in strawberries (Fragaria - ananassa). Crop Protection. Volume 89, November 2016, Pages 255-258. doi: 10.1016/J.Cropro.2016.07.034Effects of microbial, organically acceptable, and reduced risk insecticides on Anthonomus signatus (Curculionidae: Coleoptera) in strawberriesHannah Burrack2016http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s026121941630188010.1016/J.Cropro.2016.07.034
Jotterand, F. and Dubljevic, V. (Eds.) (2016): Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy Implications in International Perspectives, New York: Oxford University Press.Cognitive Enhancement: Ethical and Policy ImplicationsVeljko Dubljevic2016
Dubljevic, V., Saigle, V. & Racine E. (2016). The Bright Future of Neuroethics. Neuroethics. DOI 10.1007/S12152-016-9263-xThe Bright Future of NeuroethicsVeljko Dubljevic2016http://www.academia.edu/25033343/the_bright_future_of_neuroethics10.1007/S12152-016-9263-x
Liu H., Erica V. Todd, Mark P. Lokman, Melissa S. Lamm, John R. Godwin, Neil J. Gemmell (in press). Sexual plasticity: a fishy tale. Molecular Reproduction and Development.Sexual plasticity: a fishy taleJohn Godwin2016http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mrd.22691/full10.1002/mrd.22691
Kern, E.M.A., D. Robinson, E. Gass, Godwin, J., R.B. Langerhans (2016) Correlated evolution of personality, morphology, and performance. Animal Behavior 117: 79-86.Correlated evolution of personality, morphology, and performanceJohn Godwin2016
Backus, G. A., and Gross, K.. 2016. Genetic engineering to eradicate invasive mice on islands: modeling the efficiency and ecological impacts. Ecosphere 7(12):e01589. 10.1002/Ecs2.1589Genetic engineering to eradicate invasive mice on islands: modeling the efficiency and ecological impactsKevin Gross, Gregory Backus2016http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ecs2.1589/full10.1002/Ecs2.1589
Radel, C., B. Schmook, N. Haenn, and L. Green (2016) The Gender Dynamics of Conditional Cash Transfers and Smallholder Farming in Calakmul, Mexico. Women's Studies International Forum. DOI:10.1016/J.Wsif.2016.06.004.The Gender Dynamics of Conditional Cash Transfers and Smallholder Farming in Calakmul, MexicoNora Haenn2016https://www.researchgate.net/profile/nora_haenn/publication/305452577_the_gender_dynamics_of_conditional_cash_transfers_and_smallholder_farming_in_calakmul_mexico/links/59b2e6a10f7e9b37434ea946/the-gender-dynamics-of-conditional-cash-transfers-and-smallholder-farming-in-calakmul-mexico.pdf10.1016/J.Wsif.2016.06.004.
Hite, R., Jones, M.G., Childers, G., Chesnutt, K., Corin, E. N., & Pereyra, M. (2017). Teachers' Pedagogical Perceptions of Novel 3-D, Haptic-enabled, Virtual Reality Technology.Teachers' Pedagogical Perceptions of Novel 3-D, Haptic-enabled, Virtual Reality TechnologyGail Jones2016http://www.naun.org/main/naun/educationinformation/2016/a222008-169.pdf
Jones, M. G., Childers, G.,Emig, B., Chevrier, J., Stevens, V., & Tan, H. (2016), The efficacy of visuohaptic simulations in teaching concepts of thermal energy, pressure and random motion, In N. Papadouris, A. Hadjigeorgiou, & C. Constantinou (eds), Insights from research in science teaching and learning (pp.73-86), Springer, Neatherlands.Instructional representations as tools to teach systems thinking.Gail Jones2016
Gardner, G., Jones, M. G., Albe, V., Blonder, R., Laherto, A., & Paechter, M. (2016). Factors Influencing Postsecondary STeM Students' Views of the Public Communication of an Emergent Technology: A Cross-National Study from Five Universities. Research in Science Education, 1-19.Factors Influencing Postsecondary STeM Students' Views of the Public Communication of an Emergent Technology: a Cross-National Study from Five UniversitiesGail Jones2016
Jones, M. G., Hite, R., Childers, G., Corin, E., Pereyra, M., & Chesnutt, K., (2016). Perceptions of presence in 3-D, haptic-enabled virtual reality instruction. International Journal of Education and Information Technologies, 16, 73- 81.Perceptions of presence in 3-D, haptic-enabled virtual reality instructionGail Jones2016
Hite, R., Jones, M. G., & Jur, J. S. (2016). Engineering imagination with ideation. Journal of Interdisciplinary Teacher Leadership, 1(1).Engineering imagination with ideationGail Jones2016
Jones, M. G., Childers, G., andre, T., Corin, E., & Hite, R. (2016). Citizen scientists and science hobbyists: Educating the life-long learner. In J. Lavonen, K. Juuti, J. Lampiselk, A. Uitto & K. Hahl (eds.), Electronic Proceedings of the ESeRA 2015 Conference. Science Education research: Engaging learners for a sustainable future, Part 8, (pp. 150-159). Helsinki, Finland: University of Helsinki. ISBN 978-951-51-1541-6Citizen scientists and science hobbyists: Educating the life-long learnerGail Jones2016
Kanost, M.R., Arrese, E.L., Cao, X., Lorenzen, M.D., Et al (2016) Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sexta. Insect Biochem Mol Biol 2016 Aug 12. Pii: S0965-1748(16)30094-7. doi: 10.1016/J.Ibmb.2016.07.005.Multifaceted biological insights from a draft genome sequence of the tobacco hornworm moth, Manduca sextaMarce Lorenzen2016http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s096517481630094710.1016/J.Ibmb.2016.07.005.
Pitts EA, Jameson JK. 2016. Promoting ontological insecurity to transform the governance of science. In Transforming Conflict through Communication in Personal, Family, and Working Relationships. October 2016. Lexington Books.Promoting Ontological Insecurity to Transform the Governance of ScienceElizabeth Pitts2016https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2015/06/Pitts-and-Jameson-2016.pdf
Concha, C., Palavesam, A., Guerrero, F.D., Sagel, A., Li, F., Hernandez, Y., Pardo, T., Quintero, G., Vasquez, M., Phillips, P.L., McMillan, W.O., Skoda, S.R. and Scott, M.J. (2016) A transgenic male-only strain of the New World screwworm for an improved control program using the sterile insect technique. BMC Biology, 14: 72. DOI: 10.1186/S12915-016-0296-8A transgenic male-only strain of the New World screwworm for an improved control program using the sterile insect techniqueMaxwell Scott2016https://bmcbiol.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12915-016-0296-810.1186/S12915-016-0296-8
Schwartz, S., Truglio, M., Scott, M.J., and Fitzsimons, H.L. (2016) Long-term Memory in Drosophila Is Influenced by the Histone Deacetylase HDAC4 Interacting with the SUMO-Conjugating Enzyme Ubc9. GeNeTICS July 1, 2016 vol. 203 No. 3 1249-1264; doi: 10.1534/Genetics.115.183194Long-Term Memory in Drosophila Is Influenced by Histone Deacetylase HDAC4 Interacting with SUMO-Conjugating Enzyme Ubc9Maxwell Scott2016http://www.genetics.org/content/203/3/124910.1534/Genetics.115.183194
Anstead, C. A., Batterham, P., Korhonen, P. K., Young, N. D., Hall, R. S., Bowles, V. M., Richards, S., Scott, M. J. and Gasser, R. B. (2016) A blow to the fly - Lucilia cuprina draft genome and transcriptome to support advances in biology and biotechnology. Biotechnol Adv. 34: 605-620. doi: 10.1016/J.Biotechadv.2016.02.009. PubMed PMID: 26944522.A blow to the fly - Lucilia cuprina draft genome and transcriptome to support advances in biology and biotechnologyMaxwell Scott2016http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s073497501630016710.1016/J.Biotechadv.2016.02.009.
Tunlaya-Anukit, S., Et al, Sederoff, R.R. 2016. A proteomic based quantitative analysis of the relationship between monolignol biosynthetic protein abundance and lignin content using transgenic Populus trichocarpa. In Recent Advances in Polyphenols Research. DOI: 10.1002/9781118883303.Ch4A proteomic based quantitative analysis of the relationship between monolignol biosynthetic protein abundance and lignin content using transgenic Populus trichocarpaRonald Sederoff2016http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781118883303.ch4/summary10.1002/9781118883303.Ch4
Kuzma J. (2015) Technology Governance Alternatives. Issues in Science and Technology 32(1): 10-11Technology Governance AlternativesJennifer Kuzma2015http://www.jstor.org/stable/24726988
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Brown, J, Fatehi, L, and J. Kuzma. (2015) Altruism and Skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnology. Journal of Nanoparticle Research 17:122-140. doi:10.1007/S11051-015-2926-4Altruism and Skepticism in public attitudes toward food nanotechnologyJennifer Kuzma2015https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2015/03/alt-skept-final-2015.pdf10.1007/S11051-015-2926-4
Kuzma, J. (2015) Translational Governance Research for Synthetic Biology. Journal of Responsible Innovation. DOI: 10.1080/23299460.2014.1002055Translational Governance Research for Synthetic BiologyJennifer Kuzma2015http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/23299460.2014.100205510.1080/23299460.2014.1002055
Yue, C. Shuoli, Z, and J. Kuzma. (2015) Heterogeneous Consumer Preferences for Nanotechnology and Genetic-Modification Technology in Food Products. Journal of Agricultural Economics, 66(2), 308-328. DOI: 10.1111/1477-9552.12090Heterogeneous Consumer Preferences for Nanotechnology and Genetic-Modification Technology in Food ProductsJennifer Kuzma2015http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1477-9552.12090/full10.1111/1477-9552.12090
Roberts JP, Stauffer S, Cummings C and J. Kuzma. (2015) Synthetic Biology Governance: Delphi Study Workshop Report. GeS Center Report #2015.2.Synthetic Biology Governance: Delphi Study Workshop ReportJennifer Kuzma2015https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2014/04/Sloan-Workshop-Report-final-ss-081315-1.pdf
GeS Center Issue Brief #2015.1. Deextinction. K. Sears, S Stauffer, J. Kuzma.DeextinctionJennifer Kuzma2015https://research.ncsu.edu/ges/files/2015/08/Deextinction-Issue-Brief-072115-Final.pdf
Siplon, G., Herring, B., Kuzma, J., and Delborne, J. (2015) SynBio 101 [screenplay]. Written as part of the "Multi-Site Public Engagement with Science (MSPeS) - Synthetic Biology" (NSF Award #1421179).SynBio 101Jennifer Kuzma, Jason Delborne2015
Achee NL, Gould F, Perkins TA, Reiner RC Jr., Morrison AC, Ritchie SA, Gubler, DJ, Teyssou, R, Scott, TW. 2015. A Critical Assessment of Vector Control for Dengue Prevention. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 9(5): E0003655. doi:10.1371/Journal.Pntd.0003655.A Critical Assessment of Vector Control for Dengue PreventionFred Gould2015http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.000365510.1371/Journal.Pntd.0003655.
Perera OP, Shelby KS, Popham HJR, Gould F, Adang MJ, Jurat-Fuentes JL. 2015. Generation of a Transcriptome in a Model Lepidopteran Pest, Heliothis virescens, Using Multiple Sequencing Strategies for Profiling Midgut Gene Expression. PLoS ONE 10(6): E0128563. doi:10.1371/Journal.Pone.0128563Generation of a Transcriptome in a Model Lepidopteran Pest, Heliothis virescens, Using Multiple Sequencing Strategies for Profiling Midgut Gene ExpressionFred Gould2015http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.013394810.1371/Journal.Pone.0128563
An J, Gao Y, Lei C, Gould F, Wu K. 2015. Monitoring cotton bollworm resistance to Cry1Ac in two counties of northern China during 2009-2013. Pest Manag. Sci. 71:377-382 doi:10.1002/Ps.3807.Monitoring cotton bollworm resistance to Cry1Ac in two counties of northern China during 2009-2013Fred Gould2015http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/ps.3807/abstract10.1002/Ps.3807
Campbell, K. J., J. Beek, C. T. Eason, A. S. Glen, J. Godwin, F. Gould, N. D. Holmes, G. R. Howald, F. M. Madden, J. B. Ponder, D. W. Threadgill, A. Wegmann, and G. S. Baxter. 2015. The next generation of rodent eradications: Innovative technologies and tools to improve species specificity and increase their feasibility on islands. Biological Conservation 185:47-58.The next generation of rodent eradications: Innovative technologies and tools to improve species specificity and increase their feasibility on islandsFred Gould, John Godwin2015https://www.researchgate.net/publication/268157120_the_next_generation_of_rodent_eradications_innovative_technologies_and_tools_to_improve_species_specificity_and_increase_their_feasibility_on_islands
Z. S. Brown, B. Alvarez, N. Johnstone (2015). Tender instruments: programme participation and impact in australian conservation tenders, grants and volunteer organisations. OECD environment Working Papers, No. 85. OECD Publishing.Tender instruments: programme participation and impact in australian conservation tenders, grants and volunteer organisationsZack Brown2015https://ideas.repec.org/p/oec/envaaa/85-en.html
L. Trasande, Z. S. Brown (2015). Addressing environmental risks for child health, in promoting health, preventing disease: the economic case. Eds: D. McDaid, F. Sassi, S. Merkur. World Health Organization, Open University Press, Maidenhead, UK.Addressing environmental risks for child health, in promoting health, preventing disease: the economic caseZack Brown2015https://books.google.com/books?id=corscgaaqbaj&lpg=pa169&ots=cauzbbcuil&lr&pg=pa169#v=onepage&q&f=false
Kimmel, Shawn , Toohey, Nathan , & Delborne, Jason. (2015) Innovation at the Crossroads: Exploring the Intersection of Innovation Adoption and Specification Reform in Public Highway Construction. Transportation Research Circular (Vol. E-C199, pp. 9-18). Washington, D.C.: Transportation Research Board.Innovation at the Crossroads: Exploring the Intersection of Innovation Adoption and Specification Reform in Public Highway ConstructionJason Delborne2015http://onlinepubs.trb.org/onlinepubs/circulars/ec199.pdf
Hoopes, Joyce , & Delborne, Jason. (2015) "HeLa Cells," in J. B. Holbrook (ed.), Ethics, Science, Technology, and Engineering: A Global Resource (2nd Ed., Vol. 2, Pp. 446-448). Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference USA.HeLa CellsJason Delborne2015
Harremos, Paul and revised by Delborne, Jason. (2015) "Precautionary Principle," in J. B. Holbrook (ed.), Ethics, Science, Technology, and Engineering: A Global Resource (2nd Ed., Vol. 3, Pp. 449-455). Farmington Hills, MI: Macmillan Reference USA.Precautionary PrincipleJason Delborne2015
Kuiken, T., Quadros, M., McGinnis, S., Hull, M. 2015. Public"s Understanding, Perceptions, and Acceptance of Nanotechnology through the Lens of Consumer Products. In: Nanoengineering: Global Approaches to Health and Safety Issues, Edited by Patricia I. Dolez. Elsevier. ISBN: 9780444627476.Public Understanding, Perceptions, and Acceptance of Nanotechnology through the Lens of Consumer ProductsTodd Kuiken2015https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/b9780444627476000063
Kuiken, T. 2015. Nanomedicine: Ethical Considerations. In: Handbook of Safety Assessment of Nanomaterials. Edited by Bengt Fadeel. Pan Stanford., ISBN: 9789814463362.Nanomedicine: Ethical ConsiderationsTodd Kuiken2015https://www.taylorfrancis.com/books/9789814463379
Marina E., Todd Kuiken, Eric P. Vejerano, Sean P. McGinnis, Michael F. Hochella Jr., David Rejeski and Matthew S. Hull. Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventory. Beilstein J. Nanotechnol. 2015, 6, 1769-1780.Nanotechnology in the real world: Redeveloping the nanomaterial consumer products inventoryTodd Kuiken2015https://www.beilstein-journals.org/bjnano/articles/6/181
Todd Kuiken. 2015. Report: U.S Trends in Synthetic Biology Research Funding. Woodrow Wilson Center.Report: U.S Trends in Synthetic Biology Research FundingTodd Kuiken2015https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/us-trends-synthetic-biology-research-funding
Population Dynamics Models for Wolbachia and its Host, the Dengue Vector Aedes aegyptiPopulation Dynamics Models for Wolbachia and its Host, the Dengue Vector Aedes aegyptiTimothy Antonelli2015http://www.lib.ncsu.edu/resolver/1840.16/10766
Hardin, J. A., Kraus, D. A. and Burrack, H. J. (2015), Diet quality mitigates intraspecific larval competition in Drosophila Suzukii. Entomol ExpAppl, 156: 59-65. doi:10.1111/Eea.12311Diet quality mitigates intraspecific larval competition in DrosophilaHannah Burrack2015http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/eea.12311/abstract10.1111/Eea.12311
Hannah J. Burack et al. 2015. Multistate Comparison of Attractants for Monitoring Drosophila Suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Blueberries and Caneberries. Environ. Entomol. 1-9 (2015); DOI: 10.1093/Ee/nvv022Multistate Comparison of Attractants for Monitoring Drosophila Suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae) in Blueberries and CaneberriesHannah Burrack2015http://pemaruccicenter.rutgers.edu/assets/pdf/publications/15-burrack-et-al-2015.pdf10.1093/Ee/nvv022
Steven H. Strauss, Adam Costanza, Armand Seguin. Genetically Engineered trees: Paralysis from good intentions. Science 21 Aug 2015: Vol. 349, Issue 6250, pp. 794-795. DOI: 10.1126/Science.Aab0493Genetically Engineered trees: Paralysis from good intentionsAdam Costanza2015http://www.adamcostanza.com/docs/science-ge-trees-794-5.pdf10.1126/Science.Aab0493
Noon JB, Davis EL, Et. Al. 2015. Eighteen New Candidate Effectors of the Phytonematode Heterodera glycines Produced Specifically in the Secretory Esophageal Gland Cells During Parasitism. Phytopathology. 2015 Oct;105(10):1362-72. doi: 10.1094/PHYTO-02-15-0049-REighteen New Candidate Effectors of the Phytonematode Heterodera glycines Produced Specifically in the Secretory Esophageal Gland Cells During ParasitismEric Davis2015https://apsjournals.apsnet.org/doi/abs/10.1094/phyto-02-15-0049-r10.1094/PHYTO-02-15-0049-R
Wubben MJ, Gavilano L, Baum TJ, Davis eL. Sequence and Spatiotemporal expression Analysis of CLE-Motif Containing Genes from the Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira). J Nematol. 2015 Jun;47(2):159-65.Sequence and Spatiotemporal expression Analysis of CLE-Motif Containing Genes from the Reniform Nematode (Rotylenchulus reniformis Linford & Oliveira)Eric Davis2015http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26170479
Hewezi T, Juvale PS, Piya S, Maier TR, Rambani A, Rice JH, Mitchum MG, Davis eL, Hussey RS, Baum TJ. 2015. The cyst nematode effector protein 10A07 targets and recruits host posttranslational machinery to mediate its nuclear trafficking and to promote parasitism in Arabidopsis. Plant Cell. 2015 Mar;27(3):891-907. doi: 10.1105/Tpc.114.135327.The Cyst Nematode effector Protein 10A07 Targets and Recruits Host Posttranslational Machinery to Mediate Its Nuclear Trafficking and to Promote Parasitism in ArabidopsisEric Davis2015http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2571528510.1105/Tpc.114.135327.
The ecology of microscopic life in household dustThe ecology of microscopic life in household dustRob Dunn2015We spend the majority of our lives indoors; yet, we currently lack a comprehensive understanding of how the microbial communities found in homes vary across broad geographical regions and what factors are most important in shaping the types of microorganisms found inside homes. Here, we investigated the fungal and bacterial communities found in settled dust collected from inside and outside approximately 1200 homes located across the continental US, homes that represent a broad range of home designs and span many climatic zones. Indoor and outdoor dust samples harboured distinct microbial communities, but these differences were larger for bacteria than for fungi with most indoor fungi originating outside the home. Indoor fungal communities and the distribution of potential allergens varied predictably across climate and geographical regions; where you live determines what fungi live with you inside your home. By contrast, bacterial communities in indoor dust were more strongly influenced by the number and types of occupants living in the homes. In particular, the female : male ratio and whether a house had pets had a significant influence on the types of bacteria found inside our homes highlighting that who you live with determines what bacteria are found inside your home.As humans become increasingly urban and spend the majority of their lives indoors, the time we spend with microbial taxa found inside homes is increasing. Some of these taxa may have negative effects on human health, while others may even be beneficial.Built environment, Bacteria, Allergens, Fungi, Microbial ecology, Dusthttp://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/282/1814/20151139
Temperature alone does not explain phenological variation of diverse temperate plants under experimental warmingTemperature alone does not explain phenological variation of diverse temperate plants under experimental warmingRob Dunn2015http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25736981
Climate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structureClimate mediates the effects of disturbance on ant assemblage structureRob Dunn2015http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/282/1808/20150418
High diversity in an urban habitat: are some animal assemblages resilient to long-term anthropogenic change?High diversity in an urban habitat: are some animal assemblages resilient to long-term anthropogenic change?Rob Dunn2015http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11252-014-0406-8#/page-110.1007/s11252-014-0406-8
Stable isotopes reveal links between human food inputs and urban ant dietsStable isotopes reveal links between human food inputs and urban ant dietsRob Dunn2015http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/282/1806/20142608
Continental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungiContinental-scale distributions of dust-associated bacteria and fungiRob Dunn2015http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25902536
Fine scale heterogeneity across Manhattan's urban habitat mosaic is associated with variation in ant composition and richnessFine scale heterogeneity across Manhattan's urban habitat mosaic is associated with variation in ant composition and richnessRob Dunn2015http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/icad.12098/abstract10.1111/icad.12098
Fungi Identify the Geographic Origin of Dust SamplesFungi Identify the Geographic Origin of Dust SamplesRob Dunn2015http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.012260510.1371/journal.pone.0122605
Evolution of the indoor biomeEvolution of the indoor biomeRob Dunn2015http://www.cell.com/trends/ecology-evolution/abstract/s0169-5347(15)00038-5
The Need for Speed: Neuroendocrine Regulation of Socially-controlled Sex ChangeThe Need for Speed: Neuroendocrine Regulation of Socially-controlled Sex ChangeJohn Godwin2015http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25980565
Controls over native perennial grass exclusion and persistence in California grasslands invaded by annualsControls over native perennial grass exclusion and persistence in California grasslands invaded by annualsKevin Gross2015http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1890/14-2023.1/abstract10.1890/14-2023.1
The differential effects of increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme events on coral populationsThe differential effects of increasing frequency and magnitude of extreme events on coral populationsKevin Gross2015http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1890/14-0273.1/abstract10.1890/14-0273.1
Stability of Caribbean coral communities quantified by long-term monitoring and autoregression modelsStability of Caribbean coral communities quantified by long-term monitoring and autoregression modelsKevin Gross2015http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1890/14-0941.1/abstract10.1890/14-0941.1
Do growing degree days predict phenology across butterfly species?Do growing degree days predict phenology across butterfly species?Kevin Gross2015http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1890/15-0131.1/abstract10.1890/15-0131.1
Species richness, but not phylogenetic diversity, influences community biomass production and temporal stability in a re-examination of 16 grassland biodiversity studiesSpecies richness, but not phylogenetic diversity, influences community biomass production and temporal stability in a re-examination of 16 grassland biodiversity studiesKevin Gross2015http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/1365-2435.12432/abstract10.1111/1365-2435.12432
The community ecology of pathogens: coinfection, coexistence and community compositionThe community ecology of pathogens: coinfection, coexistence and community compositionKevin Gross2015http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ele.12418/abstract10.1111/ele.12418
Evaluating Deer Hunters' Support for Hunting Deer with DogsEvaluating Deer Hunters' Support for Hunting Deer with DogsKevin Gross2015http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10871209.2014.997328?journalcode=uhdw2010.1080/10871209.2014.997328
Nondestructive evaluation of aircraft coatings with infrared diffuse reflectance spectraNondestructive evaluation of aircraft coatings with infrared diffuse reflectance spectraKevin Gross2015http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015spie.9485e..03k
Sucrose Improves Insecticide Activity Against Drosophila Suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)Sucrose Improves Insecticide Activity Against Drosophila Suzukii (Diptera: Drosophilidae)Johanna Elsensohn2015http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2015/02/04/jee.tou100
Treatment Efficacy of Sacral Nerve Stimulation in Slow Transit Constipation: A Two-Phase, Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Crossover StudyTreatment Efficacy of Sacral Nerve Stimulation in Slow Transit Constipation: A Two-Phase, Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Crossover StudyMichael S. Jones2015http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25895520
The Death and Life of the Music Industry in the Digital AgeThe Death and Life of the Music Industry in the Digital AgeMichael S. Jones2015http://journals.cambridge.org/action/displayabstract?frompage=online&aid=9682504&fileid=s0261143015000185
Devices and methods for treating restless leg syndromeDevices and methods for treating restless leg syndromeMichael S. Jones2015http://www.google.com/patents/us9017273
Rearticulating Nuclear Power: Energy Activism and Contested Common SenseRearticulating Nuclear Power: Energy Activism and Contested Common SenseWilliam Kinsella2015http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/17524032.2014.978348?journalcode=renc2010.1080/17524032.2014.978348
The ABCs of Eye Color in Tribolium castaneum: Orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown GenesThe ABCs of Eye Color in Tribolium castaneum: Orthologs of the Drosophila white, scarlet, and brown GenesMarce Lorenzen2015http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25555987
Elizabeth A. Pitts. 2016. Shaping Emerging Technologies: Governance, Innovation, Discourse. Nanoethics (2015) 9: 85. doi: 10.1007/S11569-015-0221-6Shaping Emerging Technologies: Governance, Innovation, DiscourseElizabeth Pitts2016https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11569-015-0221-6#citeas10.1007/S11569-015-0221-6
The New Global Urban Realm: Complex, Connected, Diffuse, and Diverse Social-ecological SystemsThe New Global Urban Realm: Complex, Connected, Diffuse, and Diverse Social-ecological SystemsLouie Rivers2015
Pleistocene rainforests: barriers or attractive environments for early human foragers?Pleistocene rainforests: barriers or attractive environments for early human foragers?Pat Roberts2015https://doi.org/10.1080/00438243.2015.107311910.1080/00438243.2015.1073119
The Sri Lankan 'Microlithic' Tradition c. 38,000 To 3,000 Years Ago: Tropical Technologies and Adaptations of Homo sapiens at the Southern Edge of AsiaThe Sri Lankan 'Microlithic' Tradition c. 38,000 To 3,000 Years Ago: Tropical Technologies and Adaptations of Homo sapiens at the Southern Edge of AsiaPat Roberts2015https://doi.org/10.1007/s10963-015-9085-510.1007/s10963-015-9085-5
Fallout: Nuclear Diplomacy in an Age of Global FractureFallout: Nuclear Diplomacy in an Age of Global FracturePat Roberts2015
Understanding responder neurobiology in schizophrenia using a quantitative systems pharmacology model: Application to iloperidoneUnderstanding responder neurobiology in schizophrenia using a quantitative systems pharmacology model: Application to iloperidonePat Roberts2015
Direct evidence for human reliance on rainforest resources in late Pleistocene Sri LankaDirect evidence for human reliance on rainforest resources in late Pleistocene Sri LankaPat Roberts2015
Assessing the synergy between cholinomimetics and memantine as augmentation therapy in cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. A virtual human patient trial using quantitative systems pharmacology.Assessing the synergy between cholinomimetics and memantine as augmentation therapy in cognitive impairment in schizophrenia. A virtual human patient trial using quantitative systems pharmacology.Pat Roberts2015
It's a Boy: Modified Male Flies Could More Efficiently Control Screwworm PopulationIt's a Boy: Modified Male Flies Could More Efficiently Control Screwworm PopulationMaxwell Scott2015
Towards next generation maggot debridement therapy: transgenic Lucilia sericata larvae that produce and secrete a human growth factorTowards next generation maggot debridement therapy: transgenic Lucilia sericata larvae that produce and secrete a human growth factorMaxwell Scott2015https://doi.org/10.1186/s12896-016-0263-z10.1186/s12896-016-0263-z
Functional characterization of calliphorid cell death genes and cellularization gene promoters for controlling gene expression and cell viability in early embryosFunctional characterization of calliphorid cell death genes and cellularization gene promoters for controlling gene expression and cell viability in early embryosMaxwell Scott2015https://doi.org/10.1111/imb.12135/abstract10.1111/imb.12135
Genome Sequence of the Tsetse Fly (Glossina morsitans): Vector of African TrypanosomiasisGenome Sequence of the Tsetse Fly (Glossina morsitans): Vector of African TrypanosomiasisMaxwell Scott2015
Transgenic sexing system for genetic control of the Australian sheep blow fly Lucilia cuprinaTransgenic sexing system for genetic control of the Australian sheep blow fly Lucilia cuprinaMaxwell Scott2015
Development and Evaluation of male-only strains of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprinaDevelopment and Evaluation of male-only strains of the Australian sheep blowfly, Lucilia cuprinaMaxwell Scott2015
Control of the Sheep Blowfly - are we there yet?Control of the Sheep Blowfly - are we there yet?Maxwell Scott2015
Sex determination mechanisms in Calliphoridae (blow flies), Sexual DevelopmentSex determination mechanisms in Calliphoridae (blow flies), Sexual DevelopmentMaxwell Scott2015
Transgenic approaches for sterile insect control of dipteran livestock pests and lepidopteran crop pestsTransgenic approaches for sterile insect control of dipteran livestock pests and lepidopteran crop pestsMaxwell Scott2015
Elucidation of Xylem-Specific Transcription Factors and Absolute Quantification of Enzymes Regulating Cellulose Biosynthesis in Populus trichocarpaElucidation of Xylem-Specific Transcription Factors and Absolute Quantification of Enzymes Regulating Cellulose Biosynthesis in Populus trichocarpaRonald Sederoff2015
Phosphorylation is an on/off switch for 5 hydroxyconiferaldehyde O-methyltransferase activity in poplar monolignol biosynthesisPhosphorylation is an on/off switch for 5 hydroxyconiferaldehyde O-methyltransferase activity in poplar monolignol biosynthesisRonald Sederoff2015
4-Coumaroyl and Caffeoyl Shikimic Acids Inhibit 4-Coumaric Acid: Coenzyme A Ligases and Modulate Metabolic Flux for 3-Hydroxylation in Monolignol Biosynthesis of Populus trichocarpa4-Coumaroyl and Caffeoyl Shikimic Acids Inhibit 4-Coumaric Acid: Coenzyme A Ligases and Modulate Metabolic Flux for 3-Hydroxylation in Monolignol Biosynthesis of Populus trichocarpaRonald Sederoff2015
Decoding the massive genome of loblolly pine using haploid DNA and novel assembly strategiesDecoding the massive genome of loblolly pine using haploid DNA and novel assembly strategiesRonald Sederoff2015
Complete proteomic based enzyme reaction and inhibition kinetics reveal how monolignol biosynthetic pathway enzyme families affect metabolic-flux and lignin in Populus trichocarpaComplete proteomic based enzyme reaction and inhibition kinetics reveal how monolignol biosynthetic pathway enzyme families affect metabolic-flux and lignin in Populus trichocarpaRonald Sederoff2015
Systems Biology of Lignin Biosynthesis in Populus trichocarpa: Heteromeric 4-Coumaric acid: CoA Ligase (4CL) Protein Complex Formation, Regulation and Numerical ModelingSystems Biology of Lignin Biosynthesis in Populus trichocarpa: Heteromeric 4-Coumaric acid: CoA Ligase (4CL) Protein Complex Formation, Regulation and Numerical ModelingRonald Sederoff2015
A simple high throughput xylem protoplast system for studying wood formationA simple high throughput xylem protoplast system for studying wood formationRonald Sederoff2015
A robust chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol for studying transcription factor (TF)-DNA interactions and histone modifications in wood forming tissueA robust chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) protocol for studying transcription factor (TF)-DNA interactions and histone modifications in wood forming tissueRonald Sederoff2015
Establishing ion ratio thresholds based on absolute peak area for absolute protein quantification using protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometryEstablishing ion ratio thresholds based on absolute peak area for absolute protein quantification using protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometryRonald Sederoff2015
Plant biotechnology for lignocellulosic biofuel productionPlant biotechnology for lignocellulosic biofuel productionRonald Sederoff2015https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/pbi.1227310.1111/pbi.12273
4-Coumaroyl and Caffeoyl Shikimic Acids Inhibit 4-Coumaric Acid: Coenzyme A Ligases and Modulate Metabolic Flux for 3-Hydroxylation in Monolignol Biosynthesis of Populus trichocarpa4-Coumaroyl and Caffeoyl Shikimic Acids Inhibit 4-Coumaric Acid: Coenzyme A Ligases and Modulate Metabolic Flux for 3-Hydroxylation in Monolignol Biosynthesis of Populus trichocarpaRonald Sederoff2015
A Proteomic Based Quantitative Analysis of the Relationship Between Monolignol Biosynthetic Protein Abundance and Lignin Content Using Transgenic Populus trichocarpaA Proteomic Based Quantitative Analysis of the Relationship Between Monolignol Biosynthetic Protein Abundance and Lignin Content Using Transgenic Populus trichocarpaRonald Sederoff2015
Kokotovich, A. and J. Kuzma J (2014). Anticipatory governance and contested futures: Insights from the next generation of genetic engineering. Bulletin of Science, Technology and Society 34(4): 108-120. doi: 10.1177/0270467614565695Anticipatory governance and contested futures: Insights from the next generation of genetic engineeringJennifer Kuzma2014http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/027046761456569510.1177/0270467614565695
Kuzma, J. (2014) "Properly Paced or Problematic?: Examining Governance of GMOs in Innovative Governance Models for Emerging Technologies Editors Gary Marchant, Kenneth Abbott and Braden Allenby. Edward Elgar (editorial peer review)Properly Paced or Problematic?: Examining Governance of GMOsJennifer Kuzma2014https://www.e-elgar.com/shop/innovative-governance-models-for-emerging-technologies
Kuzhabekova, A. and J. Kuzma (2014) Mapping the Emerging Field of Genome Editing. Technology Analysis and Strategic Management 26(3): 321-352. doi:10.1080/09537325.2013.850657Mapping the Emerging Field of Genome EditingJennifer Kuzma2014http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/09537325.2013.85065710.1080/09537325.2013.850657
Gilna, B., Kuzma J., and Showwalter, S. (2014) "Governance for Genetic Biocontrol Technologies for Invasive Species." Biological Invasions 16: 1299. doi: 10.1007/S10530-012-0367-xGovernance for Genetic Biocontrol Technologies for Invasive SpeciesJennifer Kuzma2014https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-012-0367-x10.1007/S10530-012-0367-x
Kuzma, J. (2014). Translational risk governance rsearch. Paper for the Workshop on Research Agenda in the Societal Aspects of Syntehtic Biology. Arizona State University. http://cns.Asu.edu/synbio/papers.Translational risk governance researchJennifer Kuzma2014http://cns.asu.edu/sites/default/files/kuzmaj_synbiopaper_2014.pdf
Weiss Evans, S., Kuzma, J., et al. Synthetic Biology: Missing the Point. Letter to Nature 510: 218 (2014) doi:10.1038/510218BSynthetic Biology: Missing the PointJennifer Kuzma2014https://www.nature.com/articles/510218b10.1038/510218B
Thresher, R. E., K. Hayes, N. J. Bax, J. Teem, T. J. Benfey, F. Gould. 2014. Genetic control of invasive fish: technological options and its role in Integrated Pest Management. Biological Invasions. Volume: 16 Issue: 6 Special Issue: SI Pages: 1201-1216. DOI 10.1007/S10530-013-0477-0Genetic control of invasive fish: technological options and its role in Integrated Pest ManagementFred Gould2014http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-013-0477-010.1007/S10530-013-0477-0
Groot, A. T., G. Schofl, O. Inglis, S. Donnerhacke, A. Classen, A. Schmalz, R. G. Santangelo, J. Emerson, F. Gould, C. Schal, and D. G. Heckel. 2014. Within-population variability in a moth sex pheromone blend: genetic basis and behavioural consequences. Proc. R. Soc. B 281:20133054. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/Rspb.2013.3054Within-population variability in a moth sex pheromone blend: genetic basis and behavioural consequencesFred Gould2014http://rspb.royalsocietypublishing.org/content/281/1779/2013305410.1098/Rspb.2013.3054
Okamoto KW, Robert MA, Gould F, Lloyd AL (2014) Feasible Introgression of an Anti-pathogen Transgene into an Urban Mosquito Population without Using Gene-Drive. PLoS Negl Trop Dis 8(7): E2827. doi:10.1371/Journal.Pntd.0002827Feasible Introgression of an Anti-pathogen Transgene into an Urban Mosquito Population without Using Gene-DriveFred Gould, Alun Lloyd2014http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.000282710.1371/Journal.Pntd.0002827
Robert, M. A., K. W. Okamoto, F. Gould and A. L. Lloyd. 2014. Antipathogen genes and the replacement of disease-vectoring mosquito populations: a model-based Evaluation. Evol. Appl. 7:1238-1251. DOI: 10.1111/Eva.12219.Antipathogen genes and the replacement of disease-vectoring mosquito populations: a model-based EvaluationFred Gould, Alun Lloyd2014http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/eva.12219/full10.1111/Eva.12219
Z. S. Brown and N. Johnstone (2014). Better the devil you throw: Experience and support for pay-as-you-throw waste charges. Environmental Science & Policy, 38: 132-142.Better the devil you throw: Experience and support for pay-as-you-throw waste chargesZack Brown2014http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s146290111300275x
Z. S. Brown (2014). Greening Household Behaviour: Cross-Domain comparisons in environmental attitudes and behaviours using spatial effects. OECD environment Working Papers, 70. OECD Publishing.Greening Household Behaviour: Cross-Domain comparisons in environmental attitudes and behaviours using spatial effectsZack Brown2014https://ideas.repec.org/p/oec/envaaa/68-en.html
Delborne, Jason A. Navigating Controversies in Search of Neutrality: Analyzing Efforts by Public Think Tanks to Inform Climate Change Policy. In D. A. Crow & M. Boykoff (eds.), (2014). Culture, Politics, and Climate Change: How Information Shapes our Common Future (pp. 163-179). New York, NY: Routledge/earthscan.Navigating Controversies in Search of Neutrality: Analyzing Efforts by Public Think Tanks to Inform Climate Change PolicyJason Delborne2014https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261948004_navigating_controversies_in_search_of_neutrality_analyzing_efforts_by_public_think_tanks_to_inform_climate_change_policy
Bouchey, Michael , & Delborne, Jason. (2014). Redefining safety in commercial space: Understanding debates over the safety of private human spaceflight initiatives in the United States. Space Policy, 30(2), 53-61. doi:10.1016/J.Spacepol.2014.03.002Redefining safety in commercial space: Understanding debates over the safety of private human spaceflight initiatives in the United StatesJason Delborne2014https://www.researchgate.net/publication/261674424_redefining_safety_in_commercial_space_understanding_debates_over_the_safety_of_private_human_spaceflight_initiatives_in_the_united_states10.1016/J.Spacepol.2014.03.002
Evans, S. W., Jasanoff, S., Calvert, J., Delborne, J., Doubleday, R., Frow, E., Funtowicz, S., Green, B., Guston, D.H., Hurlburt, B., Irwin, A., Joly, P., Kuzma, J., Palmer, M., Race, M., Stilgoe, J., Stirling, A., Wilsdon, J., Winickoff, D., Wynne, B., and Zoloth, L. CORReSPONDeNCe: Synthetic biology: Missing the point. Nature, 510(7504), 218. (June 12, 2014). doi:10.1038/510218B.Synthetic biology: Missing the pointJason Delborne2014https://www.nature.com/articles/510218b10.1038/510218B.
Delborne, Jason. (2014) "Grasping Synthetic Biology." Invited paper for circulation prior to the Workshop on Research Agendas in the Societal Aspects of Synthetic Biology. Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ. November 4-6, 2014. Available: https://cns.Asu.edu/synbio/papersGrasping Synthetic BiologyJason Delborne2014https://cns.asu.edu/synbio/papers
Delborne, Jason. (2014) "What"s that hiding behind the poll? Perceiving public perceptions of biotechnology". The Cultural Cognition Project at Yale Law School, D. Kahan (ed.). June 24, 2014. Available: http://www.Culturalcognition.net/blog/2014/6/24/whats-that-hiding-behind-the-poll-perceiving-public-percepti.htmlWhat's that hiding behind the poll? Perceiving public perceptions of biotechnologyJason Delborne2014http://www.culturalcognition.net/blog/2014/6/24/whats-that-hiding-behind-the-poll-perceiving-public-percepti.html
Kenneth A Oye, Kevin Esvelt, Evan Appleton, Flaminia Catteruccia, George Church, Todd Kuiken, Shlomiya Bar-Yam Lightfoot, Julie McNamara, andrea Smidler, James P Collins. 2014. Regulating Gene Drives. Science. 08 Aug 2014: Vol. 345, Issue 6197, pp. 626-628. DOI: 10.1126/Science.1254287Regulating Gene DrivesTodd Kuiken2014http://science.sciencemag.org/content/345/6197/626.full10.1126/Science.1254287
Kuiken, T., Dana, G.V., Oye, K., Rejeski, D. 2014. Shaping Ecological Risk Research for Synthetic Biology. Journal of Environmental Studies and Sciences. Volume 4, Issue 3, pp 191-199.Shaping Ecological Risk Research for Synthetic BiologyTodd Kuiken2014https://www.deepdyve.com/lp/springer-journals/shaping-ecological-risk-research-for-synthetic-biology-aucxrmwruo
Todd Kuiken, Kelly Drinkwater, Shlomiya Lightfoot, Julie McNamara, Kenneth Oye. 2014. Report: Creating a Research Agenda for the Ecological Implications of Synthetic Biology. Woodrow Wilson Center.Report: Creating a Research Agenda for the Ecological Implications of Synthetic BiologyTodd Kuiken2014https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/creating-research-agenda-for-the-ecological-implications-synthetic-biology
Hollingsworth TD, Pulliam JR, Funk S, Truscott Je, Isham V, Lloyd AL. SevenSeven challenges for modelling indirect transmission: vector-borne diseases, macroparasites and neglected tropical diseasesAlun Lloyd2014http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s1755436514000425
Guerra, Lloyd, et al.: A global assembly of adult femaleAn assembly of adult female mosquito mark-release-recapture data to inform vector-borne pathogen transmission modelsAlun Lloyd2014https://parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com/track/pdf/10.1186/1756-3305-7-276?site=parasitesandvectors.biomedcentral.com
Reiner, R., Lloyd, A., et al. 2013. Time-varying, serotype-specific force of infection of dengue virus. PNAS July 1, 2014 vol. 111 No. 26. doi: 10.1073/Pnas.1314933111Time-varying, serotype-specific force of infection estimates for dengue virusAlun Lloyd2014http://www.pnas.org/content/111/26/e2694.abstract10.1073/Pnas.1314933111
Smith, DL, Lloyd, A, et. Al. 2014. Recasting the theory of mosquito-borne pathogen transmission dynamics and control. Transactions of The Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, Volume 108, Issue 4, 1 April 2014, Pages 185-197. doi: 10.1093/Trstmh/tru026Recasting the Theory of Mosquito-Borne Pathogen Transmission Dynamics and ControlAlun Lloyd2014https://academic.oup.com/trstmh/article/108/4/185/192453610.1093/Trstmh/tru026
Haase, R., J. Bielicki, and J. Kuzma. (2013) Innovation in Emerging Energy Technologies: A case study analysis to inform the path forward for algal biofuels. Energy Policy, 61:1595-1607. doi: 10.1016/J.Enpol.2013.06.029Innovation in Emerging Energy Technologies: A case study analysis to inform the path forward for algal biofuelsJennifer Kuzma2013http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s030142151300514410.1016/J.Enpol.2013.06.029
Brown, J., and J. Kuzma. (2013) "Hungry for Information: Public Attitudes toward Food Nanotechnology and Labeling" Review of Policy Research 30: 512-548. DOI: 10.1111/Ropr.12035Hungry for Information: Public Attitudes toward Food Nanotechnology and Labeling Review of Policy Research 30: 512-548Jennifer Kuzma2013http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ropr.12035/full10.1111/Ropr.12035
Korslund, K., Stephenson, S., Victor, A., Laird, A.,and J. Kuzma. (2013) Consumer Knowledge of Genetically Engineered Organisms (GeOs). Journal of Science Policy and Governance 3(1): 1-39.Consumer Knowledge of Genetically Engineered Organisms (GeOs)Jennifer Kuzma2013https://issuu.com/jofspg/docs/consumer_knowledge_of_genetically_e
Kuzma, J. (2013). "Envisioning Future Governance of the Bioeconomy" The Environmental Forum 30(3): 49. Pp 66-75. ISBN: 978-0-9803882-4-0Envisioning Future Governance of the BioeconomyJennifer Kuzma2013https://www.eli.org/the-environmental-forum/responses-white-houses-groundbreaking-report-emerging-bioeconomy-0
Kuzma, J. Should Citizens Have a Say About Emerging Technologies? (2013) Scholar"s Strategy Network, Policy Brief. Available at http://www.Scholarsstrategynetwork.org/brief/should-citizens-have-say-about-emerging-technologiesShould Citizens Have a Say About Emerging Technologies?Jennifer Kuzma2013http://www.scholarsstrategynetwork.org/brief/should-citizens-have-say-about-emerging-technologies
Korslund, K., Victor, A., Brown, J., and J. Kuzma. (2013) Examining the Oversight Challenges of Plant TagMo.: Workshop Report. U of MN, https://sites.Google.com/a/umn.edu/igets/Examining the Oversight Challenges of Plant TagMoJennifer Kuzma2013https://drive.google.com/file/d/0b7ghbtmzicwiwxrvvdvvofr5oun4rejwzlnwyv9oswfsz1bf/edit
Victor, A. Fatehi, L, and J. Kuzma. Social Robotics and Governance Challenges. Workshop Report. (2013) Published by U of MN Initiative on Governance and Emerging Technological Systems. Www.Igets.Umn.eduSocial Robotics and Governance ChallengesJennifer Kuzma2013
Facchinelli, L., L. Valerio, J.M. Ramsey, F. Gould, R. K. Walsh, G. Bond, M. A. Robert, A. L. Lloyd, A. A. James, L. Alphey, and T. W. Scott. 2013. Field Cage Studies and Progressive Evaluation of Genetically- Engineered Mosquitoes. PLoS NTD. 7(1): E2001. doi:10.1371/Journal.Pntd.0002001Field Cage Studies and Progressive Evaluation of Genetically- Engineered MosquitoesFred Gould2013http://journals.plos.org/plosntds/article?id=10.1371/journal.pntd.000200110.1371/Journal.Pntd.0002001
Gatton, M.L., N. Chitnis, T. Churcher, M. J. Donnelly, A. C . Ghani, H. C. J. Godfray, F. Gould, I. Hastings, J. Marshall, H. Ranson, M. Rowland, J. Shaman, S. W. Lindsay. 2013. The Importance of Mosquito Behavioural Adaptations to Malaria Control in Africa. Evolution. 67:1218-1230.The Importance of Mosquito Behavioural Adaptations to Malaria Control in AfricaFred Gould2013http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/evo.12063/abstract10.1111/evo.12063
Walsh, R.K. , C.L. Aguilar, L. Facchinelli, L. Valerio, J.M. Ramsey, T.W. Scott, A. L. Lloyd and F. Gould. 2013. Assessing the Impact of Direct and Delayed Density Dependence in Natural Larval Populations of Aedes aeygpti. Amer. J. Trop. Med. Hyg. 89:68-77.Assessing the Impact of Direct and Delayed Density Dependence in Natural Larval Populations of Aedes aeygptiFred Gould2013https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/pmc3748491/
Groot, A. T., H. Staudacher, A. Barthel, O. Inglis, G. Schofl, R. G. Santangelo, S. Gebauer-Jung, H. Vogel, J. Emerson, C. Schal, D. G. Heckel, F. Gould. 2013. One quantitative trait locus for intra- and interspecific variation in a sex pheromone Molecular Ecology. 22:1065-1080 DOI: 10.1111/Mec.12171One quantitative trait locus for intra- and interspecific variation in a sex pheromoneFred Gould2013http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/mec.12171/abstract10.1111/Mec.12171
Robert, M. A., K. Okamoto, A. L. Lloyd, F. Gould. 2013. Reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector-borne diseases: Insights from a deterministic model. PLoS ONE 8(9) e73233. DOI: 10.1371/Journal.Pone.0073233.Reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector-borne diseases: Insights from a deterministic modelFred Gould2013http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.007323310.1371/Journal.Pone.0073233.
Huang, Y., P. Wan, H. N. Zhang, M. S. Huang, Z. H. Li, F. Gould. 2013. Diminishing returns from increased percent Bt cotton: The case of pink bollworm. PLoS ONE 8(7): E68573. DOI: 10.1371/Journal.Pone.0068573.Diminishing returns from increased percent Bt cotton: The case of pink bollwormFred Gould2013http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.006857310.1371/Journal.Pone.0068573.
Legros M, C. Xu, A. Morrison, T. W. Scott, A. L. Lloyd, F. Gould. 2013. Modeling the dynamics of a non-limited and a self-limited gene drive system in structured Aedes aegypti populations. PLoS ONE 8(12): E83354. doi:10.1371/Journal.Pone.0083354Modeling the dynamics of a non-limited and a self-limited gene drive system in structured Aedes aegypti populationsFred Gould2013http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.008335410.1371/Journal.Pone.0083354
Okamoto K. W., M. A. Robert, A. L. Lloyd, F. Gould. 2013. A reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector- borne diseases: Insights from a stochastic, spatial model. PLoS ONE 8(12): e81860. doi:10.1371/Journal.Pone.0081860A reduce and replace strategy for suppressing vector-borne diseases: Insights from a stochastic, spatial modelFred Gould2013http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.008186010.1371/Journal.Pone.0081860
Vasquez GM, Syed Z, estes PA, Leal WS, Gould F. 2013. Specificity of the receptor for the major sex pheromone component in Heliothis virescens. Journal of Insect Science 13:160. Available online: http://www.Insectscience.org/13.160Specificity of the receptor for the major sex pheromone component in Heliothis virescensFred Gould2013http://www.insectscience.org/13.160
Z. S. Brown, N. Johnstone, I. Hascic , L. Vong, F. Barascud (2013). Testing the effect of defaults on the thermostat settings of OECD employees. Energy Economics, 39: 128-134.Testing the effect of defaults on the thermostat settings of OECD employeesZack Brown2013http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s0140988313000753
Z. S. Brown, K. Dickinson, and R. A. Kramer (2013). Insecticide resistance and malaria vector control: The importance of fitness cost mechanisms in determining Economically optimal control trajectories. Journal of Economic Entomology, 106(1): 366-374.Insecticide resistance and malaria vector control: The importance of fitness cost mechanisms in determining economically optimal control trajectoriesZack Brown2013http://jee.oxfordjournals.org/content/106/1/366.abstract
Y. Serret, Z. S. Brown, N. Johnstone (2013). Greening Household Behaviour: Overview from the 2011 Survey. OECD Studies on Environmental Policy and Household Behaviour, OECD Publishing. [Edited book, authored three chapters.]Greening Household Behaviour: Overview from the 2011 SurveyZack Brown2013https://ideas.repec.org/p/oec/envaaa/79-en.html
Z. S. Brown (2013). Background information on the assessment of alternatives to DDT. Technical report for the Stockholm Convention Secretariat. UNeP/POPS/POPRC.7/INF/19Background information on the assessment of alternatives to DDTZack Brown2013http://chm.pops.int/theconvention/popsreviewcommittee/meetings/poprc7/poprc7documents/tabid/2267/ctl/download/mid/7443/default.aspx?id=23&objid=12892
J. Silva, Z. S. Brown (2013). More than the Sum of their Parts: Valuing Environmental Quality by Combining Life Satisfaction Surveys and GIS Data. OECD Statistics Working Papers, 2013/1, OECD Publishing.More than the Sum of their Parts: Valuing Environmental Quality by Combining Life Satisfaction Surveys and GIS DataZack Brown2013http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/economics/more-than-the-sum-of-their-parts-valuing-environmental-quality-by-combining-life-satisfaction-surveys-and-gis-data_5k4840hfpwkb-en
Delborne, Jason, Schneider, Jen, Bal, Ravtosh , Cozzens, Susan, and Worthington, Richard. (2013) "Policy Pathways, Policy Networks, and Citizen Deliberation: Disseminating the Results of World Wide Views on Global Warming in the United States." Science and Public Policy 40 (3): 378-92. doi: 10.1093/Scipol/scs124.Policy Pathways, Policy Networks, and Citizen Deliberation: Disseminating the Results of World Wide Views on Global Warming in the United StatesJason Delborne2013https://academic.oup.com/spp/article-abstract/40/3/378/163345310.1093/Scipol/scs124.
Anderson, Ashley A., Delborne, Jason, & Kleinman, Daniel Lee. (2013) Information beyond the forum: Motivations, strategies, and impacts of citizen participants seeking information during a consensus conference. Public Understanding of Science, 22(8), 955-970. doi:10.1177/0963662512447173Information beyond the forum: Motivations, strategies, and impacts of citizen participants seeking information during a consensus conferenceJason Delborne2013http://journals.sagepub.com/doi/abs/10.1177/096366251244717310.1177/0963662512447173
Kuiken, T. 2013. Converging Technologies for a Smarter Health and Wellness Future. In OECD ICTs and the Health Sector: Towards Smarter Health and Wellness Models. OECD Publishing. Pp 159-177. http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264202863-EnConverging Technologies for a Smarter Health and Wellness FutureTodd Kuiken2013http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/science-and-technology/icts-and-the-health-sector/converging-technologies-for-a-smarter-health-and-wellness-future_9789264202863-12-en10.1787/9789264202863-En
Grushkin, D. Kuiken, T., Millet, P. 2013. Report: Seven Myths and Realities about Do-It-Yourself Biology. Synthetic Biology Project/Woodrow Wilson Center.Report: Seven Myths and Realities about Do-It-Yourself BiologyTodd Kuiken2013https://www.wilsoncenter.org/publication/seven-myths-and-realities-about-do-it-yourself-biology-0
L. Fatehi and Kuzma, J. (2012) "Policy Innovation in Synthetic Biology Governance" 21st Century Borders/Synthetic Biology: Focus on Responsibility & Governance, Institute on Science for Global Policy (ISGP).Policy Innovation in Synthetic Biology GovernanceJennifer Kuzma2012https://www.eli.org/the-environmental-forum/responses-white-houses-groundbreaking-report-emerging-bioeconomy-0
Kuzma, J. and R. Haase. Genetically Modified Foods: Policy Context and Safety. Food Policy Research Center: Policy Brief #1. (2012)Genetically Modified Foods: Policy Context and SafetyJennifer Kuzma2012
Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Biosafety Technical Series 02: Summary and Comparative Analysis of Nine National Approaches to Ecological Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms in the Context of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, annex III. (2012) Shelby Flint, Thelma Heidel, Scott Loss, Jacob Osborne, Kristina PreScott, David Smith. Jennifer Kuzma and Dave andow, faculty advisers. Available at http://bch.Cbd.Int/database/record.Shtml?Documentid 103869. Peer reviewedConvention on Biological Diversity (CBD) Biosafety Technical Series 02: Summary and Comparative Analysis of Nine National Approaches to Ecological Risk Assessment of Living Modified Organisms in the Context of the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, annex IIIJennifer Kuzma2012
Citation TitleAffiliateYearAbstractSignificanceKeywordsLinkAltMetric
Andow, D. A. 2023. A simple definition of food resources for the highly polyphagous Lygus lineolaris enables prediction of adult abundance. Environmental Entomology 52(3): 521-526. DOI: 10.1093/ee/nvad032A simple definition of food resources for the highly polyphagous Lygus lineolaris enables prediction of adult abundanceDavid Andow2023Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois) is a highly polyphagous herbivore with more than 300 known host plants. The high polyphagy has created logistical challenges for understanding its population dynamics. I hypothesized that the primary food resource of this species can be characterized simply, cutting across the multiple host plant species, and enabling a simpler understanding of its population dynamics. The food resource was defined as the apical buds and meristematic tissue and terminal flowers and young seeds. Adult abundance in a habitat was related to the relative abundance of food in the habitat, abundance on a host plant stem was related to the amount of food resource on the stem, and the rate of emigration was lower from host plant patches with higher amounts of food resources. These results suggest that the population dynamics of L. lineolaris depends less on the identity of the host plants and more on the amount of food resource the various host plant species provide.Defines the niche dimensions of a highly polyphagous species into a signle dimension.Lygus lineolaris, polyphagous herbivore, food niche, emigration rate0
Andow, D. A. 2023. Deconstructing insect herbivore trivial movement in a monoculture and triculture: Limitations of emigration. Population Ecology 65(3): 183-191. http://doi.org/10.1002/1438-390X.12150Deconstructing insect herbivore trivial movement in a monoculture and triculture: Limitations of emigrationDavid Andow2023Significantly higher population densities of a squash pest beetle, Acalymma vittatum, were observed in a squash monoculture than a triculture of squash, maize, and beans. One hypothesis for such differences is that non-host plants in the triculture cause the herbivore to move more frequently resulting in higher emigration rates from the tricultures. Plant to plant movement of the beetle was studied in vegetative winter squash to evaluate if differences in components of trivial movement would generate a higher emigration rate from the triculture. Tenure times were shorter on plants in the triculture than on plants in the squash monoculture, there was no movement directionality, movement distances were greater in squash monocultures than in tricultures and were greater during July than August. In the tricultures, plant-to-plant transitions were primarily to maize from non-host plants and to beans or squash from host plants during July, but during August, movement from any plant was primarily to maize. We integrated the values of the movement components from vegetative winter squash into a simple Markov model, and found that during July, emigration was estimated to be faster from the triculture than the monoculture, supporting the hypothesis. However, in August, emigration was estimated to be slower from the triculture. In August, maize plants were tall and, by acting like a fence, greatly reduced the movement distance of beetles. The effect of the differences in emigration rate on beetle population density was greatest for small patches, indicating that emigration may be important only in small-scale production systems.Differential emigration rates from habitats have frequently been suggested to account for differences in population density across a landscape. This paper suggests that there are significant limits to this process as driving differences in population density.emigration, patch size, striped cucumber beetle, trivial movement, vegetational diversity1
Andow, D. A. 2024. Detecting population responses to temperature in 12-year insect time series. Ecological Entomology 49(2): 205-214. https://doi.org/10.1111/een.13294.Detecting population responses to temperature in 12-year insect time seriesDavid Andow20241. Considerable work has examined the distribution of species under projected climate change, but empirical data are needed to support predicting change in abundance. 2. I analysed populations of 17 saproxylic beetle species collected twice nightly from mid- May to mid-October from 2004 to 2015 at lights in Shizuoka, Japan, to investigate effects of two 100-year hot summers (2010 and 2013) and correlated changes with June, July and August maximum temperatures. The first analysis examined the effect of heat stress and the second examined how populations tracked changes in temperature. 3. I hypothesised that the responses would be species-specific and could be related to interspecific variation in body size, voltinism, primary food source and the strength of density dependence. 4. Heat stress was associated with population declines of five species during the same year and five other species in the following year. Conifer feeders were more likely to decline during the same year as the heat stress. Only one species tracked variation in maximum June temperature. Larger, later emerging species were more strongly detrimentally affected by high June temperatures than smaller, early emerging species. There was no relation between the response to heat stress and tracking June temperatures across species. 5. The influence of summer temperature on saproxylic beetles was detectable from relatively short time series and occurred in a species-specific manner. The effect of heat stress was more readily detected than correlated changes in abundance and temperature. Short time series may help reveal the response of insect populations to changing temperatures.Able to detect a population signal from climate change from short time series.Body size, Climate change, Emergence time, Heat stress, Saproxylic Coleoptera, Temperature variationhttps://resjournals.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/een.132949
Andow, D. A. and D. P. Paula. 2023. Estimating predation rates from molecular gut content analysis. Molecular Ecology Resources 23(5): 1023-1033. DOI 10.1111/1755-0998.13769.Estimating predation rates from molecular gut content analysisDavid Andow2023Several methods have been published to estimate per capita predation rates from molecular gut content analysis relying on intuitive understanding of predation, but none have been formally derived. We provide a theoretical framework for estimating predation rates to identify an accurate method and lay bare its assumptions. Per capita predation can be estimated by multiplying the prey decay rate and the prey quantity in the predators. This assumes that variation in per capita predation rate is approximately normally distributed, prey decay occurs exponentially, and predation is in steady state. We described several ways to estimate steady state predation, including using only qualitative presence-absence data to estimate the decay rate and in addition, we provided a method for estimating per capita predation rate when predation is not in steady state. We used previously published data on aphid consumption by a ladybird beetle in a feeding trial to calculate the predation rate and compare published methods with this theoretically derived method. The estimated predation rate (3.29 ± 0.27 aphids/h) using our derived method was not significantly different from the actual predation rate, 3.11 aphids/h. In contrast, previously published methods were less accurate, underestimating the predation rate (0.33 ± 0.02 to 1.66 ± 0.8 aphids/h) or overestimating it (3.64 ± 0.30 aphids/h). In summary, we provide methods to estimate predation rates even when variation in predation rates is not exactly normally distributed and not in steady state and demonstrate that the prey decay rate, and not the prey detection period, is required.This is a method to estimate predation rates from molecular gut content data.food webs, generalist predators, molecular diet analysis, natural enemies, predation ratehttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/full/10.1111/1755-0998.137690
Andow, D. A., E. M. G. Fontes, C. S. S. Pires and D. P. Paula. 2023. Organization of the macroinvertebrate community in a tropical annual agroecosystem into modules. PLoS One 18(8): e0289103. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0289103Organization of the macroinvertebrate community in a tropical annual agroecosystem into modulesDavid Andow2023The structure of macroinvertebrate communities in agroecosystems has been assumed to be modular and organized around key herbivore pests. We characterized the macroinvertebrate community in the annual organic brassica agroecosystem in tropical central Brazil to determine if the community was a random assemblage of independent populations or was organized into repeatable multi-species components. We sampled 36 macroinvertebrate taxa associated with six organic brassica farms at biweekly intervals during the dry season during two years in the Distrito Federal, Brazil. We used an unconstrained ordination based on latent variable modeling (boral) with negative binomial population counts to analyze community composition independent of variation in sample abundance. We evaluated observed community structure by comparing it with randomized alternatives. We found that the community was not a random assemblage and consistently organized itself into two modules based around the major herbivores; one with lepidoptera and whiteflies and their associated natural enemies which was gradually replaced during the season by one with brassica aphids, aphid parasitoids and coccinellids. This analysis suggests that the historical and present-day focus on pest herbivores and their associated species in agroecosystems may be justified based on community structure.Demonstration of modular organization of an arthropod community in a tropical agroecosystemBrassica, Community structure, Aphids, Herbivory, Farms, Binomials, Arthropodahttps://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.02891031
Baltzegar JF, Gould F. 2023. Development of the first high-density linkage map in the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamais. PeerJ 11:e15414 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.15414Development of the first high-density linkage map in the maize weevil, Sitophilus zeamaisJennifer Baltzegar, Fred Gould2023Maize weevil, Linkage map, Sitophilus, ddRadSeq, Agricultural pesthttps://peerj.com/articles/15414/
de Fouchier, A., Fruitet, E., Lievers, R.,...Gould, F., et al. Lipases and carboxylesterases affect moth sex pheromone compounds involved in interspecific mate recognition. Nature Communications 14, 7505 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1038/s41467-023-43100-wLipases and carboxylesterases affect moth sex pheromone compounds involved in interspecific mate recognitionFred Gould2023Moth sex pheromones are a classical model for studying sexual selection. Females typically produce a species-specific pheromone blend that attracts males. Revealing the enzymes involved in the interspecific variation in blend composition is key for understanding the evolution of these sexual communication systems. The nature of the enzymes involved in the variation of acetate esters, which are prominent compounds in moth pheromone blends, remains unclear. We identify enzymes involved in acetate degradation using two closely related moth species: Heliothis (Chloridea) subflexa and H. (C.) virescens, which have different quantities of acetate esters in their sex pheromone. Through comparative transcriptomic analyses and CRISPR/Cas9 knockouts, we show that two lipases and two esterases from H. virescens reduce the levels of pheromone acetate esters when expressed in H. subflexa females. Together, our results show that lipases and carboxylesterases are involved in tuning Lepidoptera pheromones composition.https://www.nature.com/articles/s41467-023-43100-w10.1038/s41467-023-43100-w
Crane, L., Merck, A., Delanthamajalu, S., Grieger, K., Marshall, A.M., Boyer, T. 2024. Benchmarks for urine volume generation and phosphorus mass recovery in commercial and institutional buildings. Water Research X, 23: 100227. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.wroa.2024.100227.Benchmarks for urine volume generation and phosphorus mass recovery in commercial and institutional buildingsKhara Grieger, Ashton Merck2024Phosphorus (P) is a finite resource and necessary nutrient for agriculture. Urine contains a higher concentration of P than domestic wastewater, which can be recovered by source separation and treatment (hereafter urine diversion). Commercial and institutional (CI) buildings are a logical location for urine diversion since restrooms account for a substantial fraction of water use and wastewater generation. This study estimated the potential for P recovery from human urine and water savings from reduced flushing in CI buildings, and proposed an approach to identify building types and community layouts that are amenable to implementing urine diversion. The results showed that urine diversion is most advantageous in CI buildings with either high daily occupancy counts or times, such as hospitals, schools, office buildings, and airports. Per occupant P recovery benchmarks were estimated to be between 0.04–0.68 g/cap·d. Per building P recovery rates were estimated to be between 0.002–5.1 kg/d, and per building water savings were estimated to be between 3 and 23 % by volume. Recovered P in the form of phosphate fertilizer and potable water savings could accrue profits and cost reductions that could offset the capital costs of new urine diversion systems within 5 y of operation. Finally, urine diversion systems can be implemented at different levels of decentralization based on community layout and organizational structure, which will require socioeconomic and policy acceptance for wider adoption.Highlights• Water savings and recovered P can make urine diversion economically viable.• Occupancy-based benchmarks can define a building's viability for urine diversion.• Urine diversion is favorable in hospitals, schools, office buildings, and airports.• Urine diversion can be scaled spatially depending on a community's layout.Building occupancy, Resource recovery, Source separation, Urine diversion, Water conservationhttps://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S2589914724000173?via%3Dihub10.1016/j.wroa.2024.100227

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